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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
- INTRODUCTION 1
- Background of the study 1
- Statement of the problem 3
- Purpose of the study 4
- Significance of Study 5
- Delimitations of the study 5
- Research Questions 5
- Hypotheses 6
- Definition of terms 7
- REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8
- Effects of Student’s Attitude toward Practical Performance 9
- Relationship between School Teachers, Quality and Student’s Academic Performance 11
- Effect of Laboratory and Library Facilities and Science Teaching 12
- Influence of Parent’s Attitude and Home Environment on Students Practical Performance 14
- Inappropriate Teaching Method on the Part of the Teacher 16
- METHODOLOGY 19
- Research Design 19
- Population of the Study 19
- Sample of the Study 20
- Instrument for Data Collection 20
- Validation of Research Instrument 20
- Administration of the Instrument 21
- Data Analysis Technique 21
- Procedure of Data Collection 21
- Problem Encountered during Data Collection 22
- PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 23
- Result and Discussion 23
- Discussion 28
- SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32
- Summary 32
- Conclusion 33
- Recommendations 33
- Suggestions for Further Studies 35
This study investigated the effect of environmental factors affecting practical performance of students in chemistry; A case study of Ikere Ekiti local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire was used and the research population used consisted of two hundred (200) students randomly selected from five (5) public senior secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, the schools chosen consisted of 5 co-educational schools. The data collected were analyzed using Chi-Square goodness of fit technique and the result was upheld at 0.05 level of significance. Significant differences were obtained in all the hypotheses tested.
1.1 Background of the study
The importance of education in developing nations like Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. Science is like a catalyst affecting the rate of changes within the society, the more dynamic a society is the better the development.
The rate of academic performance in chemistry have been influenced by nature of the environment, the nature of a society directly determines the status of science in that society. An illiterate and highly superstitious society will give very little attention towards growth and development of science. A poor society can only invest in science within the limit of its financial capability (Iyewarun, 1983).
Chemistry by definition is preoccupied with the nature of matter and its transformation. It contributes to the wealth of any nation because it embraces all the processes occurring in industries. It should be noted that technology is an application of science and that each society has its own technological improvement in the society, however depends on the advancement in the field of science and society has a mutual influence. The nature however has to take initial step in setting scientific activities in motion (Owolabi, 2000).
Chemistry stand as one of the basic and fundamental tools to every living either at home, in schools and in our environment, that is why chemistry is one of the core subject of science subjects in senior secondary schools. Performance is an evidence of knowledge attained on skills development as shown by the score grade achievement in a test or examination. It should also be subject to task reforming of the individual ability in the subject or task (Mash, 1975).
The two major factors that influence the performance of students in chemistry are internal and external factors. The internal factors include the intelligence of an individual, personality trout such as self-concept, attitude, age, sex, religion etc. The external factors include environment in which child is developed, the type of socio-economic status of the parents, the type of teachers, the type of society and institutions that surround the child, the school site can also influence the academic performance of students whether it is located in the noisy environment or in an industrial area where definite noise would be militating against the rate of learning which can result in poor academic performance of the students (Egalitrian, 1986).
Practical performance was detected within Nigeria society, parents and environment. Parents are seriously implication because of the struggle for national gains and desperate urge for cash has filtered away responsibilities of parent to the child. Due to the poor performance in practical in the Nigeria education, government introduced National Policy on Education (NPE). Federal government adopted education as instrument per excellent for affecting national development (Scannel, 1984).
Laboratory equipment for the teaching of science (Abdulahi, 2000). The first school to set up chemistry laboratory in Nigeria is “the kings college in Lagos”. Despite the importance of laboratory to the teaching of science subjects, many schools are without a laboratory while many of the secondary schools have minimum facilities which cannot but hinder learning activities especially science which has laboratory as their backbone.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Chemistry is a subject which should not be taught in abstract. It has been observed and noted that government, school heads and stakeholders do not provide adequate practical materials for the teaching of chemistry in schools in Nigeria. Therefore Azikwe (1906) suggested that the teacher should do all within his power to provide instructional materials when he cannot be provided with the needed and necessary practical materials.
This is because the use of instructional materials in teaching chemistry enhances easy learning and stimulating influence. The act of making the teaching and learning of chemistry as chalk and talk method should be discourage.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study is aimed at determining the factors affecting the practical performance of students in chemistry.
The purpose of the study is to:
- Determine the environment on the learning of science subject.
- Determine the effect of laboratory facilities on the teaching and learning of chemistry.
- Determine the importance of chemistry teacher and trained personnel in the teaching and learning of practical chemistry.
- Demonstrate both the teachers’ and students’ attitude towards the use of instructional aids.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study will assist science teachers especially chemistry teachers in secondary schools to know the implication of teaching without putting the environment in which the child was brought up to consideration and availability of facilities.
It will provide information for further investigation on the impact of environmental factor on students’ practical performance in science especially in chemistry.
1.5 Delimitations of the Study
This study was restricted to the influence of environmental factors in some selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State of Nigeria.
1.6 Research Questions
The following questions were raised in examining the problem, the questions were also meant to guide the researcher and to give the work a more analytical look.
- Is there any significance difference between students’ practical performance and parental attitude?
- Is there any significance difference between the performance of students from schools with well-equipped laboratories and students from schools with ill-equipped laboratories?
- Is there any significance difference between the performance of students taught by non-graduate chemistry teachers and graduate teachers?
- Is there any significant difference in the performance of students in WAEC between those who were exposed to practical materials and those who were not?
- Does the use of practical materials sustain the interest of the learners?
The following hypotheses were raised for the study;
- There is a significant difference between the performance of students and parental attitude
- There is a significant difference in the performance of students in school with well – equipped laboratories and students from school with ill- equipped laboratories
- There is a significant difference in the performance of students taught by graduate and the students taught by non-graduate chemistry teachers.
- There is a significant difference in the performance of students in Chemistry, between students exposed to well-equipped libraries and exposed to ill-equipped libraries
1.8 Definition of Terms
Environment: This is the natural and man-made components of plant earth in which people and other living thing lives.
Science: This is a subject that is invariably with us at all time, at home, in the classroom and also in the industry. It is also present in all aspects of life.
Laboratory: It is a building set apart for scientific findings or inquiry. It is a place usually a room where scientific experiments are performed by the use of apparatus and chemical reagents.
Practical Performance: This is an evidence of knowledge attained on a skill development as shown by the score or grade achieved in a test or examination.
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