GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AS AN ANTIDOTE TO OUTBREAK AND SPREAD OF EBOLA VIRUS AMONG CITIZENRY IN NIGERIA
Background of the study
The issue of Ebola virus diseases EVD also Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever or EHF or simply Ebola is a disease of humans other primates caused by Ebola virus signs and symptoms typically start between two ways and three weeks after contracting the virus with fever. Some throat and muscular pain, headaches, vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow along with decreased function of the liver and kidney, at this time some people begin to bleed internally and externally. The disease has a high risk of death killing between 25 and 50 percent of those infected with the disease. This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss and typically follows six to sixteen days after a symptom appear.
Statement of the problem
The major objective of this study is to know much about the spread of the virus by direct contact with body fluids such as blood of an infected human or other animals. This may also occur through contact with an item recently contaminated with bodily fluids spreads of the disease through the air between primates including humans has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions. Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may still carry the virus for several weeks to months.
Fruit, bats are believed to be the normal carriers in nature and are able to spread the virus without being affected by it. Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. Blood samples are tested for viral RND viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.
Purpose of the study
A lot of research works have been carried out on Ebola virus disease EVD within and outside Nigeria by many people of different interest Ebola is a major predicament confronting the lives of people within and outside African continent.
The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa from 1976 (when it was first identified) through 2013 the World Health Organization reported 1,716 confirmed cases. The largest outbreaks to date is the ongoing West Africa Ebola virus outbreak which has caused a large number of deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. In March 2014, the world Health organization (WHO) reported a major Ebola outbreak in Guinea a western African nation researchers troued the outbreak to a one year old who died December 2013. The disease then rapidly spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. It is the largest Ebola out brake ever documented and the first recorded in the region.
On 8th August, 2014 the WHO declared the epidemic as an international public health emergency urging the world to offer and to the affected regions. The Director General of World Health Organization (WHO) said countries affected to date simply do not have the capacity to manage an outbreak of this size and complexity on their own. He urged the international community to provide this support on the most urgent basis possible by mid-August 20114, Doctors without Borders reported the situation in Liberia capital Monrovia as catastrophic and deteriorating daily” They reported that fears of Ebola among staff members and patients had shut down music of the city’s health system leaving many people without treatment for other conditions in a 26 September.
The Ebola epidemic savaging parts of West Africa is the most severe acute public health emergency seen in modern times. Never before in recorded history has a biosafety level four pathogen infected so many people so quickly over such a broad geographical area for so long.
Intense contact training and strict isolation techniques largely prevented further spread of the disease in the countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone this disease is ongoing. As of 17 June 2015 27, 388 suspected cases and 11, 193 deaths have been reported. However the WHO has said that these numbers many be underestimated because they work closely with the body fluids of infected patients. Health care workers have been especially vulnerable to catching the disease. In August 2014 the WHO reported that ten percent of the dead have been health care workers. On 28 January 2015 the WHO reported that for the first time since the week ending. 29th June 2014 their had been fewer than 100 new confirmed cases reported in a week in the three most affected countries.
Significance of the study
In recent times a considerable number of researcher has been done on the disease called Ebola virus, but not much has been said about the effect of guidance and counselling is a means of eradicating or minimizing the virus.
This research would therefore be of great importance and significant in the sense that it will help to educate the people in general, medical agencies, medical practitioners researchers to understand the usefulness of guidance and counselling principles and application in eradicating the disease.
In order to elicit facts from the respondents the following research questions were formulated to guide the researcher.
- Are people from low economic status much disposed to the contact of Ebola virus Disease (EVD) than their counterparts from high economic status?
- Do individuals in rural areas contact Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) more than their counterparts in the urban areas?
- Do illiterate people contact Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) easily than their educated counterparts?
- Does age have any effects in the contact of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the life of an individual?
- Do the opinions of individual vary in the spread or contact of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)?
- Are male more exposed to the contact of Ebola virus Disease (EVD) than their female counterparts?
The research work will be based on these working assumptions/hypotheses are easily testable.
- There is no significant difference between the rate at which rural and urban people can contact Ebola.
- There is no significant difference between the contact rate of Ebola among literates and illiterates
- There is no significant difference between the people of low socio-economic status and that of people of high socio-economic status in the contact of Ebola virus Disease (EVD).
- There is no significant difference between sex (Male and Female) in the contact of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD).
- There is no significant different in age with the contact of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) when one get in contact with infected pest.
Delimitation of the study
The study is limited to Lagos State of Nigeria as a case study. This choice was made to facilitate administration of the copies of questionnaire and to reduce cost.
The study is also restricted to Lagos because; the first case of Ebola was recorded in Lagos. Extracts from the literature of some West African countries (Liberia, Serria Leone and Guinea) where Ebola epidemic was very pronounced with also be made use of.
Definition of terms
Ebola: Any of several filorivirus Genus Ebola virus and especially species Zaire Ebola virus) of Africa origin that cause an often fatal hemorrhagic fever.
Disease: A condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptom of sickness malad.
Virus: An extremely small living thing that causes a disease, and that spreads from one person or animal to another.
Epidemic: Characterized by very widespread growth or extent of relating to or constituting an epidemic.
Counselling: A mutual advise given especially as a result of consultation.
Guidance: Help or advise that tells you what to do the act or process of guiding someone or something.
Antidote: A remedy the counteract the effect of something or something that correct of improve the bad effect of something.
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