IMPACT OF CELEBRITIES DRESSING STYLES ON STUDENTS’ CHOICE OF CLOTHING AND SOCIALIZATION IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

IMPACT OF CELEBRITIES DRESSING STYLES ON STUDENTS’ CHOICE OF CLOTHING AND SOCIALIZATION IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the influence of Celebrities’ Dressing Styles on Students’ Choice of Clothing and Socialization in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Four objectives, four research question and four null hypotheses were formulated as well as review of relevant literatures to the study. The study was a survey research design having Five thousand and thirty students as the target population while five hundred and three students served as samples for the study across three tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The Sampling technique used was systematic sampling. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The method of data analysis for bio data and research questions was by frequency counts, and percentages. Regression Analysis was used to test all the null-hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Results of the null-hypotheses showed that Null hypotheses one, two, three and four were rejected. Among the findings of the study were: celebrities’ dressing styles have significant influence on students’ socialization in tertiary institutions; celebrities’ dressing styles have significant influence on clothing utilization of students’ in tertiary institutions; celebrities’ dressing styles have significant influence on fashion trend of students’ in tertiary institutions; celebrities’ dressing styles have significant influence on clothing accessories of students’ in tertiary institutions. It was concluded that: Students’ of tertiary institutions tend to socialize based on their peers who conform to celebrities’ dressing styles. The researcher recommended among others that students should have good relationship with each other irrespective of individual outfits and clothing should not be the bases of determining social status of their fellow students.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………….……………………….i

DECLARATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii

CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………… vi

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………… viii

LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………. xi

LIST OF PLATES …………………………………………………………………………………………… xii

LIST OF APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………… xiii

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS ……………………………………………………….. xiv

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study …………………………………………………………………………. 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.3 Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………. 5

1.4 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………. 5

1.5 Research Hypotheses ………………………………………………………………………………. 6

1.6 Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………. 6

1.7 Basic Assumptions of the study ………………………………………………………………… 7

1.8 Delimitations of the Study ……………………………………………………………………….. 7

CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………………………………. 9

2.1.1 Maslow Hierarchy of Needs ………………………………………………………………………. 10

2.1.2 Theory of Social Influence …………………………………………………………………….. 11

2.1.3 Distinguishing Theory …………………………………………………………………………… 11

2.1.4 Impressive Theory ………………………………………………………………………………… 12

2.1.5 Symbolic Theory ………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

2.2 Definition of Clothing ……………………………………………………………………………. 13

2.3 Concept of Celebrities …………………………………………………………………………… 15

2.4 Dressing Styles of Celebrities …………………………………………………………………. 17

2.5 Clothing and Students Socialization ………………………………………………………… 18

2.6 Clothing Utilization by Students …………………………………………………………….. 22

2.7 Trend in Fashion …………………………………………………………………………………… 23

2.8 Clothing Accessories …………………………………………………………………………….. 24

2.9 Psychology of Clothing …………………………………………………………………………. 25

2.10. Figures and Figures Types ……………………………………………………………………… 27

2.11 Influence of Mass Media ………………………………………………………………………. 29

2.12 Wardrobe Planning ……………………………………………………………………………….. 30

2.13 Purchasing Behaviors ……………………………………………………………………………. 33

2.14 Empirical Studies ………………………………………………………………………………….. 35

2.15 Summary of Reviewed Literature ……………………………………………………………. 40

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design …………………………………………………………………………………… 41

3.2 Population for the Study ………………………………………………………………………… 41

3.3 Sampling Size and Sampling Procedure …………………………………………………… 42

3.4 Instrument for Data Collection ……………………………………………………………….. 43

3.4.1 Validity of the Instrument ………………………………………………………………………. 44

3.4.2 Pilot Study …………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

3.4.3 Reliability of the Instrument …………………………………………………………………… 44

3.5 Procedure for Data Collection ………………………………………………………………… 45

3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………… 45

CHAPTER FOUR:PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSES

4.1 Analysis of Personal Data ………………………………………………………………………. 47

4.2 Answers to Research Questions ………………………………………………………………. 49

4.2.1 Research Question One ………………………………………………………………………….. 49

4.2.2 Research Question Two ………………………………………………………………………… 50

4.2.3. Research Question Three ……………………………………………………………………….. 50

4.2.4. Research Question Four ………………………………………………………………………….. 51

4.3 Testing Null Hypotheses ………………………………………………………………………… 51

4.3.1. Null Hypothesis One ……………………………………………………………………………… 52

4.3.2. Null Hypothesis Two …………………………………………………………………………….. 52

4.3.3 Null Hypothesis Three …………………………………………………………………………. 53

4.3.4. Null Hypothesis Four …………………………………………………………………………….. 53

4.4 Summary of Major Findings …………………………………………………………………… 54

4.5 Discussion of the Major Findings ……………………………………………………………. 54

CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

5.2 Contribution to Knowledge ……………………………………………………………………. 62

5.3 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

5.4 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………. 63

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies ………………………………………………………………. 64

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 65

APPENDIXES ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 69

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Clothing is anything that is worn on the body which includes garments, jewelry, cosmetics, tattooing, shoes and others. Clothing is also a form of artistic expression that reflects the cognitive, moral and social aspects of human life (Kiran, Malik, Riaz, 2002). Humans expressed that during the present dynamic age, there was probably no other sphere of human activity being important to such an extent, in which values and life styles are reflected more than they are in the clothes that we choose to wear. An individual’s dress is a kind of “sign language” that communicates a complete set of information and is usually the basis on which immediate impressions are formed. Style of clothing that people wear, the fabrics, designs and colours can speak a lot about the way an individual thinks and live. Erwin et al (1979) recognized that no single conceptual framework was adequate in interpreting the significance of dress. Rather conceptual network of information that assists in apprehending the importance of clothing.

Ibrahim (2013) stated that change in clothing is inspired by fashion designers who decide to showcase their products in magazines, catalogues, newspapers and travels, cultural events such as stage play or life performance and art exhibition or a costume exhibit is also an inspiration. Similarly, clothing choice and practices are an important human activity that constitutes the selection, acquisition and utilization of clothes. These activities are affected by social reasons, values, goals and self-concept.

Celebrities are well-known personalities who are famous as a result of their achievements. According to Schlecht (2003), Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of certain groups of people. These recognition and achievements are usually known both locally and internationally. The Celebrities take different forms ranging from actors like Julie Robert, Rihanna, Beyonce, Morgan Freeman, models like Naomi Campbell, Agbani Darego, Genevieve Nnaji, sports like Tiger Woods, Venesa and Serina Williams, Raphael Nadal entertainers like Oprah Winfrey, Toke Makinwa, Amber Rose, Kim Kadashian, and musicians like Tuface Idibia, Di’ja, P-Square, Nicky Minaj, Omawunmi, Davido, Tiwa Savage etc. These celebrities and their visual fashion statements affect dresses of youth and also the fashion industry which is evident in specific fashion replications (La Ferla, 2006).

The celebrities mode of dressing are usually that of the western wears and these celebrities unintentionally start trends, photographers snap hundreds of pictures and after the photos have been published, new fashions are born. It is often seen that interviews of these Celebrities are read with keen interest by young people. Young boys and girls are eager to know the personal aims and attitudes of these people. The youth observe the celebrities closely and then imitate them in every instance of their life. The youth pay great attention to their advice even more than their parents, teachers and their well-wishers (Norton, 2006). Clothes with Celebrities names and pictures are one of the examples. Young boys and girls imitate the mode of dressing to gain some sort of psychological satisfaction. Celebrities who are viewed on television, movies, satellite, newspapers are all powerful tools of communicating dress sense and clothing styles to students (Kiran,Malik, Riaz, 2002).

Dressing patterns of these celebrities are usually done in a manner that suits their personality. Schuster (2011) explained that one of the easiest way to show celebrities personality without saying a word is through their style of dress because the image the project as they walk can immediately set the right tone for their performance. The mode of dressing comes in the form of romantic wears and colours that cling so much on them making them appear bold and sexy on stage. People will always have one thing in common; they want to look nice, they want to be aware of the current trends and their appearance to be appreciated.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The practical function of clothing is to protect the body from dangers in the environment. Clothing protects against many things that can injure the naked human body but today, humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing. Strange appearance has come to characterize the dress pattern of students on the campuses of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Fayeye (2008) opined that clothing, dress pattern or adornment is an aspect of human physical appearance which has social significance apart from food and shelter, clothing is listed as one of the basic physiological human needs. This most essential need of man has now posed a great deal of problem to people especially the students of tertiary institutions who dress indecently against the acceptable norms of the society. Omede (2011) stated that there is hardly any tertiary institution in this country that is not faced with this nauseating problem and further stressed that ways students on campuses particularly, the females dress seductively leaves much to be desired.

In Nigeria, tertiary institutions have been battling with this serious challenge of how students appear on campus and attend school functions. Many institutions tried adopting measures such as dressing code in order to curtail such dresses which institution feel is absolutely inappropriate to wear in public but these measures has not solved the problem because student still look strange in some of their outfits and even accessories which they use to compliment the outfits. These dress sense gives the authority a source of concern. These students attend lectures with garments that expose sensitive body parts likes low necklines showing their burst, skinny jeans trousers below waistline which is tight-fitting down to the ankle and skimpy tops revealing their pants. The male students wear T-shirts with jeans hanging below waist line (sagging) due to short crotch of trousers and fastened tightly at the middle of the two bottom lobes revealing their boxers and sometimes they could also have what is known as “carrot trousers” (pencil cuts) which takes the same form with that of the ladies (very tight from waist to their ankle). This pattern of dressing has made some students never to be seen as responsible due to the fact that it reveals their body contours which are provocative. Students dresses most times, expose a lot of figure faults which hardly makes them look appreciable there by defeating the essence of clothing (concealing figure faults).

Furthermore, dresses and accessories of celebrities are usually imported and found in high exclusive stores or boutique with a high price tags placed on them. Students whom are still dependents to parents unnecessarily border themselves to buy such clothing and at this point their purchasing behavior becomes more of impulsive buying and credit purchase which becomes detrimental to their academic needs.

Celebrities’ clothing are outfits that are not easily gotten or seen anyhow in markets, students have to go extra miles of ordering online for a particular design or style. Others who wish to have but couldn’t order, go in search for the cheapest look alike just to have some form of identity with celebrities.

Use of time is also an issue of concern to the study because students so much engaged with beauty and fashion hardly have good time management, most times their so much engrossed in what is trending and social activities in institutions at the expense of their studies.

It is on this note that the researcher intends to investigate on the extent to which celebrities influence the clothing choices of students within tertiary institutions of Ekiti State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to ascertain the influence of celebrities’ dressing styles on students’ choice of clothing and socialization in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State.

The specific objectives were to:

1) ascertain the influence of celebrities’ dressing styles on students’ socialization in tertiary institutions.

2) ascertain the influence of celebrities’ dressing styles on clothing utilization of students’ in tertiary institutions

3) ascertain the influence of celebrities’ dressing styles on fashion trend of students’ in tertiary institutions.

4) ascertain the influence of celebrities’ dressing styles on clothing accessories of students’ within tertiary institutions.

 

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

1) What influence do celebrities’ dressing styles have on students’ socialization in tertiary institutions?

2) What influence do celebrities’ dressing styles have on clothing utilization of students’ in tertiary institutions?

3) What influence do celebrities’ dressing styles have on fashion trend of students’ in tertiary institutions?

4) What influence do celebrities’ dressing styles have on clothing accessories of students’ in tertiary institutions?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following Null Hypotheses were formulated for the study:

H01 Celebrities’ dressing styles have no significant influence on students’ socialization in tertiary institutions.

H02 Celebrities’ dressing styles have no significant influence on clothing utilization of students’ in tertiary institutions

H03 Celebrities’ dressing styles have no significant influence on fashion trend of students’ in tertiary institutions.

H04 Celebrities’ dressing styles have no significant influence on clothing accessories of students’ in tertiary institutions.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research will be of immense relevance to parents/families, students, tertiary institutions and to the society at large on issues regarding people’s appearance and outfits.

This study is beneficial to parents/families to ensure that children from an early stage should be disciplined on how to dress properly and not exposing their bodies unnecessarily, while they become students on campus they should also be cautioned not to confirm to ungodly pattern of dressing and to help them to be conscious of their figure and find what really fits them.

Tertiary institutions are beneficiaries to the study due to the fact that it will help reduce cases of teacher-student and student-teacher harassment on campuses, make student appear more decent and modest in their outfits. The school authorities will have less issues dealing with cases of indecent dressing or having to impose any form of dress code in tertiary institutions.

Clothing lecturers of tertiary institution will have this study as a secondary source of information to teacher concerning good clothing practices that will assist to improve the image of students by making them dress-up according to what rally fits their structures.

The society is also benefitting from this study because it has every tendency to improve patronage of local productions of clothing and not clothing’s of celebrities thereby improving the Nigerian economy. Challenges and cases of rape and sexual harassment in the society will be highly reduced thereby coping issues of crime in the society.

1.7 Basic Assumptions of the study

This study was based on the following assumptions that students:

1) are influenced by celebrities mode of dressing.

2) dressings are not in conformity with culture or religion

3) derive psychological satisfaction when dressed like celebrities.

 

1.8 Delimitations of the Study

The study was delimited to celebrities (actors, actresses and musicians) dressing styles and their influence on students choice of clothing and socialization in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. The state is considered an educational state as various institutions are situated in major cities

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Dressing Styles: This refers to the celebrities’ mode of dressing.

Choice of Clothing: This is the clothing practices of students in terms of clothing selection and utilization.

Socialization: Referring to the level of interaction among students based on their clothing pattern.

Accessories: These are items that complement outfits e.g. sunglasses, earrings, rings, bracelet, shoes, belts, bags

Celebrities’: Personalities’ who are famous as a result of their achievements.

Styles: This is the manner in which people personalize their clothing.

Sagging: This is a manner of wearing trousers or jeans below the waist to expose one’s underwear.

Dress Code: Stipulated guidelines on students dressing within campus environment

Tertiary Institutions: Referring to Federal University, Federal College of Education and Federal Polytechnic in Ekiti State.

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Updated: June 22, 2018 — 5:32 am

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