IMPACT OF E-LEARNING AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
Background to the Study
E-learning refers to the use of various kinds of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning is an inclusive terminology that encompasses all forms of educational technology that electronically or technologically support learning and teaching. Depending on whether a particular aspect, component or delivery method is given emphasis, e-learning may be termed technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based training (CBT), internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, virtual education, or digital educational collaboration.
E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underlay many e-learning processes.
E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but it can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended learning is commonly used.
It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education. Many proponents of e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a medium to reach educational goal.
E-learning is an inclusive terminology for all forms of educational technology that electronically or technologically support learning and teaching. Bernard Luskin advocates that the “e” should be interpreted to mean “exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational” in addition to “electronic.” This broad interpretation focuses on new applications and developments, and also brings learning and media psychology into consideration.
The worldwide e-learning industry was estimated to be over $48 billion in 2000 according to conservative estimates. Developments in internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-learning, with consulting, content, technologies, services and support being identified as the five key sectors of the e-learning industry. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are used extensively by young people.
E-learning has given people in college accessibility to data and information, this can improve interactions between students and their instructors for their classes, this can allow students with tools which they can use for different purposes and use independently supports problem base actions. There are also ways that it can deter people from actually learning as pointed out, it may make it easier to chat taking someone away from learning and into talking to someone through Face book it also gives them the ability to cheat through online test and quizzes having the ability to look for the answer using Google it always a possibility. This also can give tech-savvy students an advantage over non-technical students. Over all e-learning through technology will most likely be seen more and more in today’s college environment. Approaches to e-learning require a focus on students providing them with tools to support their shared activities and problem based activities
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been generally adopted by all levels of education in the country today, as a delivery system of imparting knowledge into students. All branches of education have accepted this emergent technology as a veritable tool for education services delivery. Due to its importance, tertiary institution has to align itself with this emergent Information and Communication Technology. This is necessary because according to UNESCO (2011) ICT more than any other technology provides teachers and students access to vast stores of knowledge beyond the school, as well as with multi-media tool to add to this store of knowledge. The huge growth of computers, the internet and other electronic devices provide global opportunities for education, especially for learning outside the premises of the school (Ngwoke, 2011). They are powerful tools for the development of quality teaching and effective learning. They are also catalysts for radical change in existing school practices and European Journal of Educational Studies veritable vehicle for service delivery in Tertiary Institutions. They have facilitated quick delivery of learning and dissemination of knowledge and information in a way that were not previously possible.
The recognition of these facts, has led to the Federal Government of Nigeria to instruct the National Policy on Education (2004) to set standards, regulate framework for the deployment of ICT infrastructure at all levels of education in Nigeria. The federal government urged the state government to adopt the National Policy on Computer Education of 1998 which has its objectives as to encourage teachers to develop a sense of rapport with computer and appreciate its potentials for solving teaching and learning challenges and to entrench computer culture that permeates all activities in institutions of learning (Adeosun, 2010).
The adoption of this has led to the shift from traditional methods of face-to-face classroom environment in teaching to an environment where technology is significant component of the overall infrastructure, skills and credentials of teachers and learners for the purpose of collaborative and on-line activities (Jone and Sims, 2002). E-learning as ICT tool has become the most acceptable method of effective educational service delivery in the recent times. E-learning packages are many and varied. The assessment therefore will be based on whether the institutions in Nigeria education teachers use of e-learning packages in teaching; do they have both computer and web competences to apply the packages and what challenges do they encounter in utilizing these devices. But, before delving into answering these questions, the term E-learning will be defined.
E-learning simply means Electronic learning. E-learning as a product of internet has been variously defined. It comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. It is to the brick wall classroom learning, what mobile phone is to fixed analog. While brick wall classroom is situated at a place where students and teachers meet and interact face-to-face, e-learning takes place anywhere, anytime, without face-to-face interaction. It involves the use of network technologies to create, foster, deliver and facilitate learning. AlsoUgwuoke (2011), added that it encompasses face-to-face, distance, mixed and blended delivery models that utilizes electronic means. According to Hedge and Haward (2004), e-learning is an innovative approach for delivering electronically mediated, well-designed, leaner-centred and interactive learning environment to anyone, anytime and anyplace by utilizing the internet and digital technologies in concern with instructional design principles.
Statement of the Problem
Tertiary institution students in Nigerian have been finding education processes and research difficult because of the traditional educational delivery system still in practice. In this system, distance is identified as a problem to both the undergraduates and post graduate students of universities and also contribute to the over stay of students in school. These call for a new innovation in education that will help to eliminate these problems. Students in tertiary institution suffers a lot of setback in external examinations due to the type of teaching system which they receive. They do not have access to the internet and lack knowledge of what is obtainable in the society.
Even the emergence of e-learning applications in education delivery services of the universities brings about lot of problems. Some of the lecturers in the tertiary institutes in Nigeria lack the adequate knowledge required for effective e-learning instructional delivery. It is only sound competence that can aid proper optimizing of the electronic media which will facilitate effective optimization of e-learning among the teachers in the tertiary institute.
There are also problems associated with erratic power supply, weak and inadequate ICT infrastructures, poor education funding, absence of experts, cost associated with purchase of hardware and software, shortage and inappropriate teaching materials. Slow internet connection, inadequate bandwidth, inadequate dial-up links to the internet, insufficient computer system, low literacy, etc. the existence of these problems challenge the full utilization of e-learning applications in the educational delivery system of the Tertiary Institutions.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine E-learning and teaching effectiveness tertiary institution in Nigeria.
The specific objectives are;
To facilitate the development of information technology, to reveal the use and technology of wireless network to the user.
To provide alternative way of attaining education, and to implement a system which reduce examination mal- practice
- To what extent do teachers in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions utilized e-learning in their teaching for effective learning?.
- What are the computer and web competences acquire by the teachers for utilization of e-learning for effective teaching and learning in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria?
- What are the problems faced by teachers in effective utilization of e-learning in teaching and learning in tertiary Institution in Nigeria?
- To what extent do the lecture optimize e-learning in their educational researches on education in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions.
For the purpose of meaningful research, the following hypothesis will be tested.
Ho: There is no significant effect of teaching effectiveness of e-learning on tertiary institution in Nigeria
Ho: Computer and web competence acquire by the teachers for utilization of e-learning has impact on student ‘academic performance.
Significance of the study
The importance of investigating E-learning and teaching effectiveness in tertiary institution in Nigeria.
The work serves as a useful resource for students of education and the numerous educators already on the field in the quest to effective educational development of the nation. It will also help the teachers, examiners, school administrators on the importance of E-learning and teaching effectiveness in a tertiary institution.
It also provides the education authority adequate knowledge of E-learning and teaching effectiveness. The study will also assist students who may want to carryout research on similar topic.
Delimitation of the Study
The research work examines E- Learning and Teaching effectiveness in tertiary institution in Nigeria. (A case study of computer Science and information and technology, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Teaching effectiveness is important because effective teaching helps student learning. It has become even more important as the emphasis on quality in higher education has increased. Effective teaching does not occur by chance. Effective teachers have become good at what they do because they evaluate their practice.
Definition of the Terms
E-learning: E-learning refers to the use of various kinds of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education.
Teaching Effectiveness: When we talk about teaching effectiveness, it’s usually in the context of evaluation. Student ratings are frequently described as measures of teaching effectiveness, and that makes our understanding of the term important.
Information Technology:- Refers to the use of information system apparatus to process and disseminate information or data. It plays a major role in the performance of cooperate organization in Nigeria.
Network System:- It is having a certain number of computer and intelligent peripherals interconnected for the purpose of sharing of sources and exchange of information.
Local Area Network:- (LAN):- This is a network of computers with different officers but in the same environment or building
Internet:- This is an acronym of internetworking system, it is a process of packing and transmitting data, text and voice or video information among users. It is the ability of two independent users to communicate over internet using combination of technologies such as MODEMS. LANs, Satellites etc.
E.-mail:- This is an abbreviation of electronic mail. It means letter and document typed or scanned in one office is deliver quickly to another office irrespective of its distance.
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