IMPACT OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP STYLE ON TEACHERS’ JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Background to the Study
Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in efforts towards goal achievement. It involves a force that initiates actions in people and the leader. It could be described as the ability to get things done with the assistance and co-operation of other people within the school system.
A leader is the person who mobilizes other people to undertake collective action in pursuit of a common goal. Principal Leadership style affect all schools‟ learning situations including teachers‟ job performance. Principal Leadership style have changed over time. Planning and financial accounting are no longer accepted as the only qualities of an effective leader. Soft skills, teamwork, communication and the ability to motivate and mobilize, all of which impact teachers’ job performance are becoming the skills increasingly desired in leaders. Since relationships are fundamental, Dinham (2008) emphasized professional development and teacher inclusion in decision making as crucial to successful school leadership. In his research, teachers with positive perceptions of their Principal Leadership style also had job performance. Leadership and school management issues have raised concern globally and locally. UNESCO (2006) and Mbiti (2007) recognized the important role played by school management in achievement of school goals and its implications on the overall performance of both teachers and students.
Democratic leadership style refers to a situation where there is equal work among leaders and followers. According to Goldman (2002), democratic organizations typically have the following six characteristics: policies are determined by a group of organizations, technical and job performance measures are discussed so they are understood by all, leaders provide advice to members in regards to implementing tasks, members are free to choose with whom they work, the group determines the distribution of tasks, and leaders try to be objective in giving praise and criticism.
Goldman (2000) states that leaders using a democratic style of leadership build consensus through participation, but these leaders also expect a higher level of excellence and self direction. From my own experience I have observed that these leaders have time to listen and share ideas with their followers. They also tend to be more flexible and are responsive to ones needs. They are able to motivate teachers to participate in decision-making and are respectful which increase job performance of teachers
Directive leadership style is similar to the task-oriented style. The leader who uses this type of leadership style provides teachers with specific guidelines, rules and regulations with regard to planning, organizing and performing activities. This style is deemed to be appropriate when the subordinates‟ ability is low and or the task to be performed is complex or ambiguous. Job performance is increased when the leader gives more directives (John, 2012).
Supportive leadership style is more of a relationship-oriented style. It requires the leader to be approachable and friendly. He/she displays concern for the wellbeing and personal needs of the subordinates. He/she creates an emotionally supportive climate. This style is effective when subordinates lack self-confidence; work on dissatisfying or stressful tasks and when work does not provide job satisfaction (Hoy & Miskel, 2001). When leaders are supportive to their teachers (subordinate) it make teachers feel encourage and tend to increase their job performance. Teachers with supportive leader who perform better than teachers whose leaders are not supportive. Hence the teachers’ job performance enable the organization to achieve its target objectives.
The autocratic leadership style is also known as the authoritarian style of leadership Power and decision-making reside in the autocratic leader. The leader directs group members on the way things should be done and does not maintain clear channel of communication between himself or herself and the subordinates. He or she does not delegate authority nor permit subordinates to participate in policy-making ((John, 2012). This type of leadership style make teachers’ job performance slow down because teachers may not want to work under this type of leader.
Laissez-Faire leadership is when leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. With this style, freedoms are fully determined by group goals, techniques, and working methods. Leaders rarely intervene. Laissez-faire style is described by Hackman and Johnson (2009) as the most effective style, especially where followers are mature and highly motivated. Laissez-faire leadership style allows complete freedom to group decision without the leader’s participation. Thus, subordinates are free to do what they like.
Performance could be described in various ways. It could be an act of accomplishing or executing a given task. It could also be described as the ability to combine skillfully the right style towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Teachers’ job performance could be described as the duties performed by a teacher at a particular period in the school system in achieving organizational goals. It could also be described as the ability of teachers to combine relevant inputs for the enhancement of teaching and learning processes (Akinyemi, 2009). However, job performance is determined by the worker’s level of participation in the day to day running of the organization. It is noted that employees behave differently under different situations. Leaders can therefore encourage effective performance of their teachers by identifying their needs and trying to satisfying or meeting them. Supporting this argument, Owoeye (2009) asserted that variables of job performance such as effective teaching, lesson note preparation, effective use of scheme of work, effective supervision, monitoring of students’ work and disciplinary ability are virtues which teachers should uphold effectively in the school system. In this regard, the teachers’ performance could be measured through annual report of his/her activities in terms of performance in teaching, lesson preparation, lesson presentation, mastery of subject matter, competence, teachers’ commitment to job and extra-curricular activities. Other areas of assessment include effective leadership, effective supervision, effective monitoring of students’ work, motivation, class control and disciplinary ability of the teachers.
Teachers’ job performance may be influenced by the Principal Leadership style. Problem of poor leadership style among secondary school heads, poor decision making of leaders could be seen as factor affecting teachers job performance, another leadership style that could affect job performance could be nagging, poor supervision, and lack of motivation. It is against this backdrop that this study was set out to examine Principal Leadership style and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ado Local Government.
Statement of the problem
Many factors have been blamed for the poor performance of teachers in public secondary schools which has resulted to poor academic performance in public secondary schools amongst them are poor leadership style . The various problems with leadership style that is affecting job performance in secondary schools are poor supervision, poor leadership style s in decision making, and lack of motivation among others. It is however possible that the quality of leadership in a particular school may leads to poor job performance among teachers and consequently result to poor academic performance. When teachers are dissatisfied with their work, they may not be productive and this may eventually affect academic performance. This study is therefore interested in investigate leadership style and teachers performance in schools. The study also raised the following general questions
- Does leadership style affect teacher’s job performance?
- Does leadership behaviour a determinate of teachers performance
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate principal leadership style on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study also explored if there existed any significant difference between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance.
In addressing this problem, the following research questions were raised:
- Is there be any difference between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance?
- Is there any significant difference between teachers’ and learners’ reaction to principals leadership styles?
- Is there any significant difference between teachers’ and learners’ commitment to work based on principals’ leadership styles?
Test of Hypotheses
Ho: There is no significant difference between principals leadership style and teachers job performance.
Ho: There is no significant difference between teachers and learners reactions to principals leadership style.
Ho: There is no significant difference between teachers and learners commitment to work based on principal leadership style.
Significance of the Study
The study would be of benefit to the following bodies such as Government, Policy makers, Principals, teachers and research students
The study would enable government to know the most appropriate leadership style principals should possess and how the leadership style will help to increase teachers’ job performance in educational sector.
The findings of this study will be useful to policy makers in equipping leaders with the required skills in principal leadership style necessary for a conducive teaching and learning environment to ensure that teachers have their job performed.
Principals could benefit immensely from the research work because the recommendation made at the end of this research would serves as a guide for them to effectively lead their subordinate for effective outcome.
The study will educate many teachers who may want to become a leader. It could teach them different leadership style and their benefits.
It is also believed that this research work would contribute to existing literature and serve as a guide to students who make want to carryout research on a similar topic.
Delimitation of the Study
Although there are different types of schools, this study was delimited to public secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. School leaders may use varying approaches but the current study focused on four Principal Leadership style such as: directive, participative, supportive and achievement-oriented in relation to teacher job performance. Only principal and vice principal, and teachers with leadership experience who had served for three years in their current schools would be given chance to participate in the study.
Definition of Terms
The following terms have been operational defined
Autocratic/ Directive Leadership: Refers to authoritative style s where the leader makes decisions for the staff without consultation
Gender: biological state of being male or female
Principal: The chief executive in the public secondary school who must have served for 3 years
Job expectancies: An employees‟ psychological state where the employee expects that effort expended will lead to effective performance.
Leadership style : approach adopted by the leader to deal with situational demands in running public secondary schools.
Participatory Leadership: Refers to democratic and interactive leadership. Leader encourages teachers to express their opinions before he/she makes decision
Structured task: Refers to a task with clear goals, few correct or satisfactory solutions and outcomes, few ways of performing it and clear criteria of success.
Teacher: Teacher is a person who provides education for student
Teachers Job performance: Assesses whether a teacher performs a job well
Achievement Leadership: This is when challenging goals are set, high performance is expected and management has a high level of confidence in the employee’s ability to achieve the goals.
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