IMPACT OF TEACHER’S QUALIFICATION AND WORKING EXPERIENCE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study is aimed at investigating the impact of teachers qualification and working experience on students academic performance in Business studies in Ikere Local Area of Ekiti State. The study examined whether teachers’ commitment to teaching, work habit, teachers’ qualification, the use of instructional material, peer groups, parental involvement and so on contribute to poor performance of students in Business studies . In view of these, five research questions were formulated. This study was a descriptive research of survey type. 100 students were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using percentage. while Pearson correlation coefficient at 0.05 level of significance was use to analyzed the hypothesis generated for the study. The study revealed that among others that Lack of commitment on the part teacher, poor working habit, poor attitude of teachers, lack of punctuality in class works among others are revealed in the study as teachers’ factors responsible for students poor performance in business studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW
Reviews of Related Literature
Teachers’ Qualification and Students Academic Performance in
Teaching Experience and students academic performance
in secondary schools
Teacher’s Attitude towards the teaching of Business studies
Effect of teaching method on students academic performance
Other factors that affect learning of Business Studies
Review of Empirical Literature
Summary of Literature
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
Area of the study
Population of the study
Sampling and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Data Analysis Techniques
Result and Discussion
Test of hypotheses
Discussion of Results, Conclusion, Recommendation and Summary
Discussion of Findings
Background of the Study
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ achievement in Business studies is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (2009) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of students’ achievement in Business studies. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in science and Business studies . This report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).
Studies have revealed that poor quality of teachers is a strong factor responsible for the dwindling standard of education in Nigeria. Research also indicates that the achievement gap widens each year between students with most effective teachers and those with least effective teachers. This implies that the most significant gains in student achievement will likely be realized when students receive instruction from well qualified and experienced teachers over consecutive years. Although teachers’ academic degrees and their average years of experience have been traditional indicators of the qualification of the teacher work force, research has not found the highest degree attained by teachers to be a good predictor of gains in students’ academic achievement (Hanushek, 2010).
Number of years of teaching experience has also proven to be problematic in predicting such gains. Generally beginning teachers (three or less years of teaching experience) are not as effective as teachers with more years of teaching experience, with brand-new teachers typically being the least effective teachers (Rivkin and Kain, 2003). Research has consistently found out that brand-new teachers make important gains in teaching quality in the first year and smaller gains over the next few career years. However, there is no consistent linear relationship between years of experience and students achievement after the initial three years of teaching, making it difficult to say whether there are any discernible difference among more veteran teachers for example between teachers with 7-10 years of experience (Rivkin and Kain, 2003).
Researchers agree that teaching experience is positively correlated with higher students’ achievement even though finding about its meaning varies. For instance, some studies found that years of teaching experience are a consistent predictors of higher test scores, other documents revealed a negative effect, when a high proportion of non-experienced teachers are present in a school in terms of higher dropout rates and lower students achievement score (Agbatogun, 2010). Some research studies suggest that effect of teacher experience is small relative to the effect of other desirable teachers’ characteristics such as teachers’ content knowledge, and overall academic ability (Agbatogun, 2010).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE). The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic achievement. For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teacher’s qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. While Adeniji (2009), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (2009) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive achievement and Bilesanmi (2009) and Okonwa (1999) found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement in Business studies . Coonery (2000) opined that students do not understand Business studies when it is taught by an ineffective teacher. Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in Business studies to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors. In teaching Business studies , Adesina (2012) and Fafunwa (1985) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.Sc in Business studies, many other teachers would be confronted with problem of teaching secondary school Business studies syllabus effectively. Hence, Lussa (1985) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possess. He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do not have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals. In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education:such professionally qualified teachers may according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories. Mkpa (1987) regarded the trained teacher as someone who underwent and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution or in a planned programme of training. Among such areas of training may include principles and practice of education as well as being exposed to an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of training. People who fall within this category should under normal circumstances be able to fulfill the various functions expected of teachers within and outside the four walls of the classroom. Furrugia (2007) perceived a professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of his/her country. Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand students’ abilities to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she lives. He/She s hould be able to assist Students to reach their full intellectual and social potentials. According to Adieze (2006) non qualified and non-professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers. He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for. The comparison of students’ scores in Business studies achievement test based on teachers’ qualifications becomes necessary in order to know if formal teaching methods has any significant effect/influence on students’ performance in Business studies or not.
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to be educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. (Adebule, 2004). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend.
Statement of the problem
Teaching and learning of Business studies depends to a large extent on teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. The major problem that the study will focus on are. Does teacher qualification have impact on students academic performance in Business studies . To what is extent is the perception of teacher on students poor performance and teacher’s qualification. Does teachers qualification have effect on student academic performance generally.
In view of the above problem the study sought to determine the effect of teachers’ qualification on secondary school students’ performance in Business studies .
Purpose of The Study
The major objective of this study is to determine teachers qualification and students’ academic performance in Business studies in secondary schools examination in Ikere local government area.
Also the specific objective is;
- To determine if teacher qualification affects students’ academic performance in business studies
- To determine the impact of teacher teaching experience on students’ academic performance in business studies
- To determine the attitude of teacher towards teaching and learning of Business studies
- To determine if teachers teaching method leads to students poor academic performance and teacher’s method in teaching Business studies
Significances of the Study
This study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare of students. Also, it is hopeful that the study will provide data on effects of teachers qualification on the academic performances of the students.
Also, it will help the curriculum planners to known if teacher qualification is the major factors of student poor academic performance in the sample school.
The outcome of this research study create data that will help in future research. The result of the study would assist the federal government and the ministry of Education on how to improve the conditions of the standard of living among undergraduate students in order to employ efforts to reduce stress in tertiary schools in Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
This research work focus on teachers qualification and students’ academic performance in Business studies . The study covers five selected secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. One hundred (100) respondent were used for the study
This research will attempt to answer the following questions.
- What are the impact of teachers qualification on students’ academic performance in Business studies ?
- What are the impact of teaching experience on students’ academic performance in Business studies?
- What effect does teachers attitude have on students’ academic performance?
- What effect does teacher teaching method have on students’ academic performance in Business studies ?
Ho1 There is no significant difference between teachers’ qualification and student performance in Business studies .
Ho2 There is no significant difference between teachers’ experience and students performance in Business studies .
This chapter reviews related study on the topic by various authors and writers. The related review of this study will be carried out under the following sub-themes
- Conceptual of Student Performance
- Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools
- Teaching Experience and Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools
- Effect of teaching method on students’ academic performance
- Factors that Affect Learning of Business Studies
- Theoretical framework
- Review of Related Empirical studies
- Summary of review of related literature
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