INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL FACILITIES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.0 Background to the study
Education, in every human community is an indispensable instrument for human progress, empowerment and effecting national development. This suggests that a nation that lacks sound educational culture and philosophy stands the risk of decay whereas a nation that sees to the development of its education sector is bond to achieve great success. Schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important that the teachers are properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching –learning process that go on there. This is the essence of the school plant and facilities. Therefore school facilities are the space interpretation and physical expression of the school curriculum.
Student performance is also refered to as academic achievement by Adediwura and Tayo (2007). Academic achievement or academic performance is the out come of education the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important.
Students achievement in Biology cannot be traced to a single factor but by multiplicity of factors such as environment, student attitude, teaching techniques, school facilities, teacher qualification and many more.
According to Harb and El-shaarawin (2006) there are two types of factors affecting student academic achievement. These are internal and external classroom factors. Internal classroom factors includes, student’s competence, class schedules, class size, textbooks, class test results, learning or school facilities, school or class environment, complexity of course materials, teachers role in the class, technology used in the class and exam systems. External ones include extra curricular activities, family problems, and financial problems, social and other problems.
Noble (2006) emphasized student achievement and activities, perceptions of their coping strategies and positive attributions and background characteristics (i.e family income, parent level of education, guidance from parents and number of situation in the home) were indirectly related to their composite scores through academic achievement in high school.
Young (1999) held the view that student’s performances are tend with the use of library and the level of their parental education. To Hussan (2006), the guidance from the parent and teachers indirectly affects the performance of the student. Socio-economic factors like family income, parent’s education, teacher-student ration, presence of trained teacher in school are also factors influencing the performance of the student (Raychauduri, Amivata, Majundar, 2010).
School facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quality education. It is importance to the teaching and learning process cannot be over-emphasized. Effective learning can occur through one’s interaction with the environment. Environment here refers to the facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome or achievement. These facilities include school building, library, laboratory, textbooks, software and hardware of educational technology etc. These facilities goes a long to affect ot enhance students performance or achievement. This can be realized when there are qualified teachers to handle the subject and the facilities are available.
According to Oni (2002) facilities constitutes a strategic factor in any organizational functioning. This is so because they determine to very large extent the smooth functioning education. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity. In his words, Farombi (1998) Opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with qualified teachers and with such, there as well as high academic achievement.
Adesola (2008) found out that the level of available resources is indeed a plus to the teachers and goes a long way to show the level of ingenuity and commitment towards effective delivery of lesson. Akinfolarin (2002) identified facilities as a major contributing factor to academic achievement in the school system. Different studies conducted by Ayodele (2006) and Vandiver (2011) showed that a positive relationship exists between availability of facilities and students academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching –learning process, Balogun (2002) submitted that no effective science education programme can exist without facilities for teaching. This is because facilities enable learners or students to develop scientific attitude and problem solving skills.
Statement Of The Problem
The roles of school facility in enhancing students academic achievement cannot be over emphasized. Therefore this study has the problem of the influence of school facilities on student achievement. The problem of vailability, adequacy, management and utilization of school facilities is also examined.
Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of this study is find out the influence school facilities have on student achievement in biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government, Ondo State.
Specifically, the study will
- Find out if availability of school facilities influence students achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- Determine if adequate school facilities student achievement in Biology in secondary School in Akoko North East local Governemt Area of Ondo State.
- Investigate if management of school facilities influence student’s achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- Investigate if improvisation of school facilities influence students achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Locat Government Area of Ondo State.
The study will be guided by following research questions.
- Will availability of school facilities will not significantly influence students achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- Will adequate school facilities student achievement in Biology in secondary School in Akoko North East local Governemt Area of Ondo State.
- Will management of school facilities influence student’s achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State.
- Will improvisation of school facilities influence students achievement in Biology in secondary schools in Akoko North East Locat Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
- Availability of school facilities will not significantly influence student’s achievement in Biology.
- Adequacy of School facilities will not significantly influence student’s achievement in Biology.
- Management of School facilities will not significantly influence achievement in Biology.
- Utilization of school facilities will not significant influence student achievement in Biology.
Scope Of The Study
This study is delimited to secondary school in Akoko North East Local Government, Ondo State.
Significance Of The Study
The findings of this study will help to determine to what extent the availability of necessary facilities like, libraries, school building laboratories and textbooks in schools would facilitate effective teaching of biology as well as attaining high academic achievement of students. It would therefore inform stake holders in the education sector such as policy maker, government functionaries, academicians the need for the provision of these school facilities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
To avoid ambiguity and misconception, certain terms that are used in the study are explained below.
School facilities – this refers to all provision which include physical materials or equipment within the environment of the school which help to facilitate effective teaching –learning process and educational goals.
Achievement – This refers to the extent to which a student, teacher or institution have attained their educational goals.
Influence – this is the power to have an important effect on someone or something.
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