JOB VALUES AND CAREER MOTIVATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL
The purpose of the study is to examine job value and career motivation among secondary school teachers in Ado local government area of Ekiti state. While the specific purpose is to find out the influence of job value on teacher motivation in secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State, to determine the effect of reward system on teacher motivation in secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State, to find the relationship between job value and career motivation of teachers in Secondary Schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State, and to establish the effect of work situational factors on teacher motivation in secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State.
The research design adopted for this study is the descriptive survey design. Descriptive survey studies aim at collecting data on, and describing in a systematic manner; the characteristics, features or facts about a given population. The design is appropriate for this study since it involves collecting and describing data obtained in a systematic manner. The choice of a descriptive survey method is borne out of the fact this method focuses on people and their attributes which will help the researcher to understand and explain the impact of job value and career motivation among secondary school teachers. To achieve this, the researcher will use a survey questionnaire, observation schedule and document analysis.
The study recommended that teachers should be remunerated well to motivates them in their job. This can be achieved through offering incentives to teachers and rewarding teachers whose subjects students perform better. This will motivate them to improve on curriculum delivery. On teacher training, the study recommended that teachers should attend in-service training to update their skills. By attending trainings, teachers will develop confidence in teaching their subjects and become motivated.
On teacher training, the study recommended that teachers should attend in-service training to update their skills. By attending trainings, teachers will develop confidence in teaching their subjects and become motivated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Operational Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Job value
Concept of Career Motivation
Motivation Teacher Reward Systems such as Remuneration
Professional Training and Development and Teacher Motivation
Work Situation Factors and Teacher Motivation
Work Environment and Teacher Motivation
Arrangement of the Workspace and Teacher Motivation
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Administration of the Instruments
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Test of Hypotheses
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background to the Study
Over the years, job value has become an increasingly important area of interest among scholars and managers alike. Gosnell (2000:12) defined Job value as the degree to which people are happy with their careers. It is an emotional affective personal response, which is as a result of the estimation of the degree to which some facts of career reality is congruent or incongruent with values (Adeniyi, 2009:76). Research on workplace attitudes has identified three primary determinants of job value to be individual attributes or demographic variables, characteristics of the career itself and schools characteristics (Gosnell, 2000:98).
There is relevant evidence in literature to show that teachers job value does exert a positive and significant influence on student learning (Michaelowa, 2011:98). Since it is the desire of every nation to improve the quality of education, it is imperative that the influence of demographic variables on teacher job value be empirically determined.
Teachers in schools and learning institutions appreciate that someone cares about their work and value it which in turn motivates them to work more effectively. Owens (2004) describes motivation as the forces that cause people to behave as they do. He further points out that behaviorists think of it as extrinsic while others believe it is intrinsic. Generally, in schools, the challenge for administrators is to develop highly motivated teachers who are actively engaged in teaching and learning, open to new ideas and approaches, and committed to students and change over the lifetime of their teaching careers.
Teacher motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, motivated teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of value and fulfillment. While teacher motivation is fundamental to the teaching and learning process, several teachers complain of not being highly motivated. This observation ought to be taken seriously and an investigation into the factors influencing teacher motivation is therefore necessary to achieve the educational goals in every learning institution.
Compared with other professions, teachers across various countries, school contexts, and subject fields exhibit higher levels of emotional symptoms. According to Dai and Sternberg (2012:34), high levels of job disvalue, stress, and burnout can negatively influence motivation and job performance. According to Gorham and Millete (1997) teachers who report low levels of motivation tend to perceive their students‘ motivation levels as low. In a study done by Ofoegbu (2009:23) in Nigeria on: Teacher motivation as a factor for classroom effectiveness and school improvement; he found that teacher motivation enhances classroom effectiveness and improves schools.
Many factors have been found to promote teacher motivation. Pay incentives, for example, have been found to be unsuccessful in increasing motivation. In a study done by Sylvia and Hutchinson (2010) in the USA, a study among 167 teachers, found that teacher motivation is due to freedom to try out new ideas, assignment of appropriate responsibility levels and intrinsic work elements. They explain that true job value is derived from the gratification of higher-order needs rather than lower-order needs. \
Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation‘s future. Michaelowa (2010) in her study on analysis of the key determinants of teacher motivation in the developing country context, foud that large class size, double-shifting, rural location, high educational attainment and active parental involvement negatively correlated with teacher job value in these countries. She further found that the level of communication between teachers and school managers had no statistically significant impact on teacher job value. Motivation should be a major concern of policy makers; this was to create conditions for the success of other education interventions (VSO, 2002).
A study done by Majanga, Nasongo and Sylvia (2010:53) on the influence of class size on classroom interaction in the wake of Free Primary Education (FPE), found that FPE created increased class sizes, shortage of teachers, heavy teachers’ working load and lack of teacher motivation. Study also found that teachers are demoralized with heavy workloads, handling many lessons, many pupils and work for long hours. Sirima and Poipoi (2010) also reported in a related study in Kenya that public secondary school teachers with high levels of job value tend to have high social, and psychological atmosphere in the classroom that result in high productivity and effectiveness in job performance and willingness to stay longer.
Teacher job value and motivation are very important to the continuous growth of educational systems around the world. Value and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working. According to Osesusi (2003:56), teacher’s competency motivates them to perform well. They also observed that promotion opportunities, due favor, effective division of work among teachers, availability of teachers for guidance, good working conditions and job security enhance motivation. Mayowa, (1991) has indicated that teachers in Nigeria are highly dissatisfied and de- motivated to perform due to low salaries, poor teaching conditions and unattractive condition of service, low teacher morale and he poor quality of teacher work life. Almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her needs deficiency and growth. Needs theorists such as Abraham Maslow and Clayton Alderfer (2010 )have underscored the importance of the value of the needs physiological, relational, and growth of individuals in influencing individual and organizational outcomes. The value of these needs is paramount in their engagement and eventual achievement of stated individual or organizational goals.
According to Kazeem (2009:90), teachers tend to remain contented and reasonably motivated as long as salaries are paid on time and are promoted regularly. Sunkanmi (2011:45) also identified the payment of salaries, allowances and promotion as the key factors that shape teachers’ attitudes towards their work. Teacher’s motivation naturally has to do with his/her attitude to work, or desire to participate in the pedagogical process within the school environment, and the interest of the teacher in student discipline and control, particularly in the classroom. The teacher is the one who translates educational philosophy and objective into knowledge and transfers them to students in the classroom. The major responsibility of working with children in the school rests with the teacher. Thus, how to ensure and maintain their value on the job is very crucial in achieving the success of their students.
A secondary school is both an organization that delivers secondary education and the building where this takes place. A secondary school comprises of junior secondary education and senior secondary school, junior secondary school comprises of J.S.S. 1 TO J.S.S. 3 phases while Senior secondary rang from S.S.S 1 to S.S. S 3 is considered to be the second and final phase of basic education. Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages 13 and 16. A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to perform a specific task). In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, (homeschooling) rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college. Some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching (e.g. youth worker, pastor). In most countries, formal teaching is usually carried out by paid professional teachers. This article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training.
The strength of an educational system largely depends upon the quality of its teachers. It is a teacher who helps to change an individual into a person of imagination, wisdom, and discipline, as well as the country into a learnig society. Handling the challenging situation in the class and outside the class makes teachers exhausted, and in turns hinders their success. Being intrinsically and extrinsically motivated increase job value (Desmond, 2012). Motivation therefore has an important role in the teaching field. It is upon this background that this study is aimed at examine job value and career motivation among secondary school teacher in Ado local government area of Ekiti state.
Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that teacher motivation is a major determinant of students’ performance in national examinations. Gullatt and Bennet (2011) argued that the need for motivated teache\rs is reaching―crisis proportions in today‘s technological society undergoing fu\damental changes. The authors added that a motivated and dedicated staff is considered as a cornerstone for the effectiveness of a school in facing the various challenges and problems posed to it. It is therefore important to investigate the factors affecting teacher motivation in order to revert the situation.
The lack of motivation is perceived to be determined by different factors such as work environment and the rewards for teachers. Lack of motivation among teachers is believed to have affected the performance of students in secondary schools. According to Jackson (2007) lack of motivation among teachers has been manifested in teacher unwillingness to participate in school activities, poor attendance, unexpected absence, late coming, lack of additional training, uncreative and non-stimulating teaching, lack of interest in meetings, unhelpful attitudes when assistance is needed, occurrence of hold-ups because deadlines kept, resistance to contributing more than what is required of them and development of arguments between colleagues.
Performance of a given school depends entirely on the teacher‘s effort and if that a given teacher is unhappy with his/her job, it mean such teacher will not put emphasis into his/her teaching. Rodgers-Jenkinson and Chapman (2009) found that over a sustained period of time, the loss of experienced teachers hurts the quality of instruction and drives up the costs of recruiting and training new teachers. This study aimed at examining job value and career motivation among secondary school teachers in Ado local government area of Ekiti state.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine job value and career motivation among secondary school teachers in Ado local government area of Ekiti state.
The specific purpose include;
To find out the influence of job value on teacher motivation in secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State,
To determine the effect of reward system on teacher motivation in secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State,
To find the relationship between job value and career motivation of teachers in Secondary Schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State, and
To establish the effect of work situational factors on teacher motivation in secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State.
The study will be guided by the following research questions
- To what extent does job value motivate teachers in public secondary schools in Ado local government Ekiti State?
- To what extent does the reward system motivate the teachers in public secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State?
- To what extent does the professional training and development motivate teachers in public secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State?
- To what extent do the work situational factors motivate teachers in public secondary schools in Ado local government in Ekiti State?
- To what extent do job Value and Career motivation influence teachers performance
Significance of the Study
The study will be significant to the following categories of people:
Ministry of Education: The findings of the study will be of importance to the ministry of education as they will get to know the factors affecting teacher motivation which finally affects the performance of students in examinations. By this, the Ministry will use the information to come up with the ways of motivating teachers.
Teachers: The findings will also be of importance to teachers as they will get to know why they should place value on their job and the factors that will motivation them. This will help them in deciding to adjust to the prevailing situations to improve the performance of students.
The school management: The study will be of importance to the management of the schools as it will highlight why a teacher should be motivated. By this information, the management of the schools can come up with better ways of improving teacher motivation.
The scope of the Study
This research work examines job value and career motivation among secondary schoolteachers in Ado local government area of Ekiti state.
The study targeted teachers and principals in the sampled schools in the local government.
Operational Definition of Terms
Motivation- This is the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something (Broussard and Garrison (2010). In the context of this study, it is defined as the act of making teachers feel that their work is recognized and valued and at the same time they get the rewards worth their input.
Reward System– This is the compensation given to teachers for the services they render in terms of salary and incentives.
Job Value- This is the feeling by the teacher towards the job they do with regard to conditions of work and the rewards accrued.
Work Situations – This is the school environment in which teachers teach
Career Motivation: This is the desire to exert effort to enhance career goals. It is a multidimensional construct that combines elements of needs, interests, and personality characteristics that reflect the stimulus, direction, and persistence of career-related behaviors.
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