PERCEPTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study assessed the Perceptions of stakeholders on the management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study had five objectives, some of which were to ascertain the Perceptions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and PTA officials on the management of staff development and internal communication in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State. Five research questions were raised in line with the stated objectives and five null hypotheses were formulated for test. Relevant and related literatures were reviewed on concept of school activities, concept of management, concept of staff development and concept of supervision. The study is a descriptive research design using survey method. The population of the study involves 46 secondary school principals, 1,436 teachers, 35 MOE officials and 30 members of Parent Teachers Association (PTA). The sample population of the study involves 12 principals, 359 teachers, 9 Zonal Education Board Staff and 8 members of Parent Teacher Association. The instrument for data collection was a Likert-five point scale questionnaire. The questionnaire was pilot-tested. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The bio-data of the respondents were analyzed using frequencies and percentage while the research questions were answered using frequencies, mean and standard deviation. All the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance, using ANOVA. Findings among others showed that there is significant difference in the perceptions of Ministry of Education Officials, Principals, Teachers and members of PTA on staff development in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State (P = .027 < 0.05). Also, there is no significant difference in the perceptions of Ministry of Education Officials, Principals, Teachers and PTA on supervision in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State (P = .894 > 0.05). Recommendations were made for principals and other stakeholders to ensure that staff qualified for in-service training are recommended in the schools or within their zone, for it will improve the capabilities of the staff at the end of their training and principals should always make sure that they supervise the entire schools in order to ensure that each and every individual assigned to a task accomplishes it, that is, teachers lesson notes need to be assessed regularly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
Operational Definition of Terms
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Concept of School Activities
2.2.2 Concept of Management
2.2.3 Concept of Staff Development
2.2.4 Concept of Supervision
2.2.5 Concept of Maintenance
2.2.6 Concept of Communication
2.2.7 Concept of Planning
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.3.1 The Scientific Management School of Thought
2.3.2 The Behavioural Management School of Thought
2.4 Staff Development in Secondary Schools
2.5 Supervision in Secondary Schools
2.6 Communication in Secondary Schools
2.7 Maintenance of Discipline in Secondary Schools
2.8 Planning in Secondary Schools
2.9 Shared Responsibility in Secondary Schools
2.10 Empirical Studies
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument
3.5.2 Pilot Test
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument
3.6 Method for Data Collection
3.7 Method for Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.2 Analysis of Demographic Data
4.3 Answers to Research Questions
4.4 Hypotheses Testing
4.5 Summary of Hypotheses Testing
4.6 Summary of Major Findings
4.7 Discussions of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1 Background to the Study
Management exists in many organizations such as educational institutions to make resources productive in order that organization may achieve its goals. Management is one of the most important activities in which school administrators engage daily. The success of a school or school district is critically linked to effective decisions. School management can be viewed as harnessing both human and material resources within an integrated system for the attainment of educational goals of a local government, state, nation and private owners through an organised structure that is characterized by management functions such as planning, organizing, directing, supervision and evaluation (Hinjiri, 2007). School management involves initiating actions, monitoring activities and demanding results on the bases of allocated resources as well as policy making, control and supervision as the major functions and responsibility of the School head in the attainment of educational goals.
Staff development has been accepted as an effective method of increasing the knowledge and skills of teachers in order to enable teachers to teach more effectively. According to Lawal (2004), staff development programmes for teachers are important aspects of education process that deal with the art of acquiring skills in the teaching profession. They are essential practices that enhance subject mastery, teaching methodology and classroom management.
Supervision of staff as an important function of management is to enable checks and balances as well as to avoid distortions and deviations from stipulated rules and regulations designed to achieve the goals of the school. Supervision of staff and students calls for a daily routine check on the performance of teachers as well as
students to ascertain the appropriate implementation of policies or decisions. The school manager will need to supervise the work which is being done, ensuring that activities are carried out in line with agreed standards and taking steps to correct envisaged problems in the process of school management.
Evaluation as the final part of the management cycle is to assess the results and compare them with the set targets and objectives to which the performance of all the staff including the manager is assessed to determine the need for the adjustment of future plans. Management of school means to coordinate the efforts and activities of people towards the achievement of the school goals as that which is related to teaching, learning as well as the growth of pupils, students, teachers and the Parent Teachers Association (PTA).
In spite of the managerial functions involved for effective school administration, decision making process has been greatly distorted by the school leadership based on the fact that various school administrators come with varied opinions, beliefs and ideas on the involvement of and participation of staff members on decision making process. Dare (2006) opined that, centralized or decentralized organizational climate may impede or encourage decision making process in secondary schools. This means that, decision making process is a significant component of school administration since it ensures that school heads achieve remarkable result in the management of schools.
It is deceptive to assume that all leaders of school will behave the same to their subordinates in all situations within the school system. While some school principals might be democratic others might be autocratic or Laissez-faire. This view by the researcher holds that the leadership style adopted by the school principal to a great level influences the participation of all members in decision making process.
In the school system, like any other organization, decisions are made towards solving immediate and remote problems all aimed at achieving set goals and objectives effectively and efficiently. These decisions could bother on curricular/instructional programmes, transportation/communication systems, staffing, students/staff welfare, student/staff discipline, school plant maintenance, accommodation/health facilities, admission policy, budgeting, purchasing, gaming, extra-curricular activities and etc. the outcome of such decisions should be good quality teaching and good quality learning in a pleasant and conducive atmosphere. Decision – making can be defined as choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available, either towards the solution of a problem or the achievement of an objective. All school administrators must engage in decision – making as it is a key responsibility of school leaders, and the way and manner in which they carry out this responsibility has a considerable influence on many facets of the school.
Maintenance of discipline, in present day school situation requires the principal to act as the disciplinarian to direct the human force in the institution in the right channel. As explained by Wilson (1997) discipline is understood as an educative order involved in trying to reach appropriate standards or follow appropriate rules for engaging in a value activity. Charles (2000) stated that, compulsory schooling, crowded classroom and inadequate staffing in the schools account not only for the presence of disciplinary problems, but for their perpetuations. It is the view of the researcher that the introduction of Universal Primary Education in 1976 where classrooms were filed up with too many students, very few teachers and inadequate facilities and equipment to cater for the learning demands created a lot of disciplinary problems in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
Dealing with hundreds of students and teachers in education profession requires discipline on the part of the principal. Gillham (1999) affirmed that not only could schools be managed and operated in such a way as to reduced delinquency amongst the intake and thereby positively preventive but by the converse, badly managed and operated schools may encourage delinquency. The researcher shares the same view with Gillham because with his experience, many secondary schools in Kaduna State where some principals were not capable for maintaining turned to breeding ground for indiscipline. Hence, the achievements of school are closely associated with the personality of the principal, his ability and capability to enhance interpersonal relationship, coordination and cordiality among his staff and students.
In Nigeria, each secondary school has its own unique way of maintaining discipline within the school. However, there are common methods of discipline that most school use like school rules, punishment, guidance and counseling. All these methods to some extend have helped the schools to manage discipline problems. For effective management of discipline, the cooperation between the head, staff, students, parents, and community is essential.
Communication system in any organization like the school is very vital to the survival and smooth running of the organization. Through the use of language, mankind has been able to record past history and to transmit it‟s culture from one generation to the other (Nakpodia, 2006). Usually, the Sender must have an idea to put across which makes it a 3 way aid – the sender, message and the receiver for better communication in school, the principals must first and foremost conceive an idea and relate such idea to his staff and expect response.
Planning on the other hand which is the most important function of management is to prepare for and predict future events. Consequently, educational planning has
increasingly become an important administrative component in education where formulated policies are translated into programmes and implemented to achieve specific stated objectives. Directing involves guiding people towards the attainment of educational objectives. By these, school principals need the cooperation of all staff members consecutively towards the implementation of school policies aimed towards the attainment of educational goals. The directing process also involves coordinating, controlling, supply and use of resources both human and material effectively and efficiently to achieve desired results.
To effectively attain an enabling environment for teaching/learning in secondary schools in Kaduna State, principals as the school administrators must possess a high level of imagination, vision, initiative, as well as be cautions to demonstrate a collective concern for fairness, boldness, and love as they exercise their authority in making decisions. This would demand that subordinates are involved in decision – making as much situation allows. If the administrator understands the need dispositions of his subordinate as well as their values, aesthetics, and the general working environment, he will do well to determine the favourable limits of involvement. This is necessary because it has been observed that too much involvement of subordinates in decision – making than they would have preferred is as detrimental as too little (Nwogwugwu, 1986; Peretomode, 1992; Duze, 2005).
Duze (2005) noted that principals tend to be authoritative in making decisions thus, denying the teachers and students the right to exercise meaningful control over the purposes and the final social results of their studies. This denial according to them is the root cause of most teachers‟ and students‟ oppression, which in turn degenerates into breakdown of law and order in schools. In the same vein, Coch and French (1973), Edem (1982), and Ukeje (1992), Duze (2005) stated that students‟ and teachers
adequate involvement in decision-making in schools is not only crucial to accepting, accommodating, and implementing change decisions, but also contributes a great deal to the maintenance of internal discipline in schools, positive attitude to school works, as well as improving the quality of future decisions. Specifically, Duze (2007), Ikediugwu (2007), Ofojebe (2007) observed that truancy, vandalism, violent protests, and incessant strike actions are some of the evils that have plagued most Nigerian secondary schools as a result of inadequate participation of teachers and students in decisions that directly or indirectly affect them. According to them, Nigerian secondary schools have grown in numbers and population with corresponding increase in complexities and changes in human behaviours about many school concerns. For instance, the explosion in student‟s population in recent years evolved a corresponding change in the social roles of both teachers and students, one of the most glaring being their militancy in issues that affect their work. Thus, teacher and students in Kaduna state or Nigeria in general are no longer quiescent, passive, or conservative about school administration but rather vocal, active, and dynamic in matters that affect them an the entire educational system. This could probably be a reason why the incessant cases of unrest in our schools institutions, with grieve consequences on school work, are usually linked to administrative decisions made without their inputs. It is also commonly alleged that school administrators have continue to monopolize and “privatize” to themselves the decision-making teachers unconcerned and uncommitted to effecting the decisions taken, and students angry and unhappy about the changes they do not buy. These unwholesome developments could probably stem from the exclusion teachers and students in decision-making that directly or indirectly pertain to them in the immediate school environment and or the outer educational system. Therefore, this study is posed to find solutions to the perceptions of
stakeholders on the management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Organization as an institution cannot function without decision makers. Under the present school administrative structure in Kaduna State of Nigeria, the state acting through the Ministry of Education, plans the curriculum, recommends textbooks, and provides equipment and school plants facilities. It is also responsible for recruiting, posting and promoting both the academic and non – academic staff. It conducts entrance examinations into the selected schools for students. In all these matters, the principal‟s involvement in management process on day to day running of the school have been shifted away, given them no room to participate, which lead to undetermining their authority as principals.
Effective management principle holds that a school administrator must strive to strike a balance between fairness and firmness in the attainment of educational objectives. Situations often occur where school heads become extremely firm with no consideration for the human side of administration which in turn bridge conflict among members and make the school ungovernable. In the opinion of Igunnu (2006), fairness is mostly considered to be weakness on the part of the school principal especially where members hold more authority. The school administrator lacks an understanding of the environment which decisions are to be made, who to make the necessary decisions and to identify whether decisions should be made collectively or individually. The objectives of decision-making process are often marred by selfishness and bias in other to achieve selfish goals but to pursue selfish interest of the individual or group decision-making.
The negative role played by emotions, power, bias, politics, personal attitude and job requirement, often results in bad decisions in the school (Nwachuwku, 2006). Noncompliance to the decisions agreed by law especially with regards to the interest of the members of the school leads to conflict and misunderstanding among members of staff as well as students in the school. The negligence and non-participation of members of the Parent Teachers Association with regards to the planning decisions for management of schools also affects some decisions that are made in school. Situations occur where school/heads are in conflict with members of the Parent Teachers Association especially with regards to issues of finance and accountability which tend to make their participation in the planning and implementation of decisions very low. In other words situation also occurs where the Parent Teachers Association involved in management process show too much authority on the school leadership.
More so, in spite of the societal demand for quality assurance in education and the need for thorough supervision in schools, there is a growing concern about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that many principals give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in secondary schools. Consequently, there have been steady decline in teachers‟ instructional task performance and students academic performance which depicts non-realization of quality assurance in secondary schools (Adeneji, 2002). This has been largely attributed to gaps in teachers competence, curriculum instruction, learning facilities, resources, funding and institutional management.
School strategic planning is a key to success of a school in term of its mission, goals, and objectives. It is therefore essential for schools to put in place mechanisms to ensure that strategic plans are in place and followed to guide daily actions. For this reasons, the federal government organizes training programmes to equip principals with
strategic management skills after the training, principals are expected to give effective leadership in strategic planning for their schools. However, there have been concerns express by government bureaucrats, politicians and a big proportion of the public over what they perceive as lack of and/or inadequate planning practices in schools (Ngware et al., 2006). Most schools fail to achieve their goals, objectives and this reflected through poor academic performance. Therefore, it is against the background of the above problems that the researcher assessed the perceptions of stakeholders on the management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were set for this study, to:
1. To ascertain the perceptions of stakeholders MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on the management of staff development in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State;
2. To determine the perceptions of stakeholders MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on the internal supervision in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State;
3. To examine the perceptions of stakeholders MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State;
4. To assess the perceptions of stakeholders MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on the interpersonal communication in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State; and
5. To determine the perceptions of stakeholders MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on planning in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in the study:
1. What is the perceptions of stakeholders MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on staff development in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?
2. Do MOE, principals, teachers and PTA have the same perceptions on the internal supervision in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?
3. Is the perceptions of all MOE, principals, teachers and PTA on the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State the same?
4. What is the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on the interpersonal communication in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?
5. In what ways is the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on planning in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone different?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Based on the formulated research questions, the following null hypotheses were drawn for the study:
1. There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on staff development in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
2. There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on internal supervision in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
3. There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
4. There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on interpersonal communication in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
5. There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders (MOE, principals, teachers and PTA) on planning in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions were made:
1. Effective staff development grooms the teachers to acquire skills and knowledge, to perform their duties effectively.
2. Supervision by the school principals has significant positive impact on the management in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
3. Maintenance of discipline is a vital instrument to school effectiveness, efficiency and productivity on the management in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
4. Achievement in our schools is not due to intellectual factors, only but of effective communication by stakeholders in relating to one another and students in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
5. Effective school planning enhances the efficient and effective management in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great significance to the following:
This study is an attempt to enlighten stakeholders to share ideas relating to the management of school system particularly in Zaria Education Zone Kaduna State. The study will reveal the needs for stakeholders to get more involved on the management as this may enhance student‟s academic performance and a means of motivating them toward greater productivity.
The significance of the study will foster team spirit and co-operative between educational administrators, their staff and students which are essential for realization of the schools goals and objectives. The study will create awareness among stakeholders, curriculum planners and student‟s participation and planning process and within the school setting.
Finally the study is expected to encourage administrators to make recommendations that will encourage social responsible guidelines on the statutory responsibilities of teachers and students on the management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone Kaduna State. The management of secondary education, which includes principals, teachers and other stakeholders and so forth, is placed in a better position to produce a greater number of credible secondary school graduates.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study is concerned with the perceptions of stakeholders on management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State. This is done with a view of providing good management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone to ensure progress in the school system. The respondents of the study include MOE official, principals, teachers and PTA. Zaria is a major city in Kaduna State in Northern Nigeria, as well as being a local government area. Formerly known as Zazzau, it was one of the original seven Hausa city states.
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