PREVALENCE OF DELINQUENCY BEHAVIOUR AMONG ADOLESCENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
Background to the Study
Delinquency behavior is most in our cities, it has become a controversial, tropical issue all over the world. Over the centuries, frantic efforts have been made to trace its origin, scope, incidence, effort and the lot. It is put on record that delinquency behavior as a worldwide phenomenon, is centuries old and the oldest known codes of laws, the code of Hammurabi which date from 2,270BC, takes account of many types of misconducts’ some of which are specifically in respect of youths (Ludwig, 2010).
Delinquency behavior refers to the law violating behavior of person legally defined as minor. The term was coined in 1818 by the society for the preivation of pauperism and initially was used to describe the disapproval activities of necklet immigrant who roamed the street of New York City.
The world delinquency is derived from the Latin delinquent meaning negect. The term was borrowed and its meaning expanded by other reform group throughout the united states and abroad. The philosophies recognized the special dependent status of adolescence and declare that each should have adequate parents when natural parents could not or would not fulfill their duties. The state would step into fulfill obligation using proper parental techniques. Legally, delinquency encompasses two distinct types of behavior, criminal activities committed by youth such as robbery, murder or rape. Activities prohibited to children but not to adult like truancy running away from home, curfew violation. Both male and female in Nigeria are engaging in delinquency behavior. Bothe account for major share of delinquency behavior.
The manifestation of delinquency among secondary school students has remained an age long problem in the Nigerian secondary school system. In a study carried out by Ajake, Etuk and Omori (2 010) shows that there is a high rate of school complain about students delinquency. At this juncture, family has an enormous task of ensuring that the adolescent grows appropriately in this regard. The extent to which parents and other adults in the family make provision for the holistic growth of their adolescent, with the view of curbing societal ills has generated a lot of concern in our contemporary Nigeria as a whole. Increased attention is being given to the ability of individual and family to successfully remedy the negative impact on delinquency.
Many adolescents today have problems and are getting into trouble. After all, there are a lot of pressures for kids to deal with among friends and family. For some youth, pressures include poverty, violence, parental problems, and gangs. Kids may also be concerned about significant issues such as religion, gender roles, values, or ethnicity. Some children are having difficulty dealing with past traumas they have experienced, like abuse. Parents and their teenagers are struggling between the youth’s wanting independence while still needing parental guidance. Sometimes all these conflicts result in behavior problems (Agnew 2001).
Any number of isolated behavior problems can represent adolescent problems and delinquency-shoplifting, truancy, a fight in school, drug or alcohol ingestion. Sometimes, kids can’t easily explain why they act the way they do. They may be just as confused about it as the adults, or they simply see delinquent behaviors as appropriate ways to deal with what they experience. Parents and loved ones may feel scared, angry, frustrated, or hopeless. They may feel guilty and wonder where they went wrong. All these feelings are normal, but it is important to understand that there is help available to troubled kids and their families (Agnew, 2001).
Many factors put youth and families at risk for juvenile delinquency, though they do not necessarily cause delinquency. Such factors include youth attention and hyperactivity problems and learning disorders, volatile temperament, and even the early onset of puberty and sexual development. All these factors affect the way an adolescent feels and acts and also how peers, family, and society view the adolescent. Similarly, parental problems, such as depression, substance abuse, and domestic violence can interact negatively with a youth’s developing path of delinquency. Rather than causing delinquency, factors such as these tend to place youth at increased risk, intensify the downward spiral, and in turn add to the difficulty in changing these processes for the better (Evans 2012)
Delinquency behaviour can be classified into Overt and covert delinquency. Overt delinquency refers to violent offences such as attacking someone with or without a weapon, threatening, murder, and rape. Covert delinquency refers to non-aggressive acts such as shoplifting; pick pocketing, arson, vandalism and selling drugs. Overt aggressive and more serious offences are more common in early delinquents. They are characterized by problems more from their childhood. There has been a study that shown the link between father and mother parenting to adolescent’s delinquency may differ for several reasons. (Thornton, 2000).
The quantity of time the parents spend with their children is an important factor in their lives and also there are indications that parental involvement is also based on qualitatively different how a child will grow up later on. Covert non-aggressive delinquency on the other hand is found more often in non-persistent adolescent delinquents who have relatively normal backgrounds. In this research they have mentioned about the gender, that males are more involved in delinquent behaviors than female are. The reason for this is because males may be more vulnerable to risk factors for delinquency such as inadequate parenting than females. As mentioned before, it is important on the quantity and qualitatively of time the parents spend time with their children from the beginning of their childhood, it all depends on them Thornton, 2000. Also, it has been said that the longer antisocial fathers live with their families, the higher the risk for their children’s antisocial behavior and also a possibility that children have the tendency to model the behavior of the parent with the same sex.
It is important for parents to talk to their children and have a good relationship with them in order to prevent delinquency later on because it all begins at an early age. Delinquency affects adolescent because most delinquent adolescents are likely to experience poor adjustment in multiple domains — home, school, and community. The most effective programs for reducing youth violence and delinquency use several types of complementary interventions and strategies, addressing these multiple domains. For example, a school program that teaches nonviolent conflict resolution to students may be complemented by an intervention in the home that teaches nonviolent parenting, and the introduction of an alternative after-school program that offers positive activities and reinforces the nonviolent message (Thornton, 2000).
Statement of Problem
It is glaring that children at various stages in life involved in different unhealthy and undesirable activities which cause most adolescent fallout of school, leave home or other adventure and even their communities at large. This shows in their inability to adjust properly to the various categories of the group or society they belong.
Above all, some students are now greatly involved in prostitution, a social malady brought about some female youngsters who are striving to keep up their social desires and to gain undue popularity and recognisiton within the society as well as the outside world.
Because of the negligent of delinquent behaviors among adolescent in selected secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area by both the parents, the school and the Government who are at the best position to prevent and treat such cases. The number of adolescent imprisoned has worsened in the recent years, it is a serious problem which demand s drastic and lasting solution in order to make the education portray its value. Such solution should stimulate the children or pupils to desite from delinquency behavior and boost of the society which the yonger ones have not given cognizance in the recent years. Based on the above premise, this study therefore seeks to investigate the prevalence of delinquency behavior among adolescent in secondary school in Ado Local Government.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of delinquency behaviour among adolescent in secondary school in Ado Local Government. The specific objectives are to
- Examine the difference between male and female secondary schools students in their perception of prevalence of delinquent behaviours in Ado –Local Government.
- Examine whether religious affiliation have any significant difference on the opinion of the respondents.
- Examine the cause of delinquent behavior among secondary school students.
- Examine effects and consequence of delinquent behavior among secondary school students.
- Examine significant difference between Christian and Muslim secondary school students in their perception of delinquent behavior in Ado Local Government
The following research questions were raised for the purpose of this study;
- What pattern of relationship exist between predictor variables and delinquent behaviour among in-school adolescent?
- What is the joint effect of religious affiliation, peer influence, parental guidance and environmental factors and delinquent behavior among in-school adolescents.
- What is the liner contribution of each independent variable (religious affiliation, peer influence, parental guidance and environmental factors) to the prediction of delinquent behavior among in-school adolescent.
The following hypotheses were raised for the study
- Is there any significant difference between male and female prevalence of delinquent behavior among in-school adolescent.
- Is there any significant relationship between religious affiliation and delinquent behavior among in-school adolescent.
- Is there any significant relationship between peer influence and delinquent behavior among in-school adolescent.
- Is there any significant relationship between parental guidance and delinquent behavior among in-school adolescent.
- Is there any significant relationship between environmental influence and delinquent behavior among in-school adolescents.
Significance of the Study
The importance of this study cannot be over-emphasized and this research work willl assist in the following areas;
Firstly, this study will be carried out to detect some of the possible causes of delinquent bahviour among adolescent in selected secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State, and the society in general, so that every member of the society, teachers, parents and government will know what causes delinquent behavior among adolescents in schools and know how to detect the potential delinquenct and therefore find solution to their problems.
The study will provide data or information for the school guidance and counselors to detect delinquent behavior and help the youths to solve their problems.
Moreover, this study would be a useful guide for future research work and its funding and recommendation would help policy makers to consider the basic needs of children when drawing their policy on child education and insight of the government to plan very well, the practical ways of tackling the offences committed by young offenders and plan for their future.
The researcher want to find out how some variables can influence delinquent behaviours. The variables are: sex, age, education, religion etc.
To reduce the incidence of delinquent behavior in our society and the evils it caused, the researcher felt it is highly necessary to conduct a survey of the possible cause of delinquent behavior in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State Nigeria.
The study will enable counsellors to know causes and effect of delinquent behavior and provide ways to prevent it. And it study will be an additional material to existing literature which students can use in future.
Finally, it is expected that the results and recommendations of the research work shall pave way to further hidden problems that needed to be researched upon.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarity and easy understanding, some terms or concept used in this study are explained as follows;
Prevalence: Prevalence means common, seen, or done everywhere
Delinquency: Any act that portrays neglect or departure from the socio-cultural, moral, legal and ethical standard or wrongdoing by young persons (misdeed).
Delinquent: This is the exhibition of behavior that is against societal expectation. It is an escape from society’s norms, ethics and customs, the breaking of conventional rules of society.
Adolescence: Period of life between childhood and maturity.
Adolescent: Growth during this period are from childhood to adulthood (11-19)
Behavior : Ways of behaving, manners (good or bad), treatment shown towards others or reactions of people.
Correctional Schools: These are institutions set up by regulation (26-1946) to provide moral and skills training for convicted and non-convicted juvenile deliquescent in Nigeria.
Pent –Uptension: Means mental, emotional or nervous stretch encountered by delinquency which make them misbebave.
Delinquent –Behaviour: Behaviour that violates the norms of the society
Remand –Home: An institution where an accused person is sent to pending arraigning in a court. It is a place for reforming law breaking children, a place where juvenile offenders are kept pending trial and after judgment.
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