TITLE PAGE                                                                                    Page

CERTIFICATION                                                                                      i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                          ii

DEDICATION                                                                                  iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                              iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           v



Background of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Significance of Study

Research Questions

Scope of the Study


Conceptual framework

Concept of Examination

Examination as a Means of Evaluation

Factors Responsible for Examination Malpractice

Theoretical Framework

Related Empirical Studies

Prevalence of Examination Malpractice

Consequences of Examination Malpractices

Summary of Review of Literature


Research Design

Area of the Study

Population of the Study

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Instrument for Data Collection

Validity of the Instrument

Reliability of the Instruments

Method of Data Analysis


Descriptive Analysis

Answering the research questions


Discussion of findings

Summary of the study








This study examined the causes and effects of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Ise Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti state. The sample consisted of one hundred (100) students selected from five (5) secondary schools in Ise Orun Local Government Area. The researcher employed a descriptive research design. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were designed respectively for the study. They were analysed using mean and chi-square. From the analysis, the following findings were made; there was significant difference in the perceived causes of examination malpractices in public examinations in secondary schools; there was significant difference in the identified devises used in examination malpractices in secondary schools; there was significant difference in the measures that should be taken to discourage, prevent, or otherwise address cheating in public examinations. The study further recommended that; there should be increased efforts by principals of schools and examination boards in enhancing the effective supervision of students during examinations; there should be increased emphasis on the use of continuous assessment by schools and examination boards in determining students’ success or failure in public examinations; there should be the full implementation of the examination malpractices decree which provides for imprisonment of culprits to 21 years jail term. Hence, the arrest and prosecution of students caught in examination malpractices should always be done to serve as a lesson to others; electronic devices should be used to check students’ pockets before entering examination halls.

CHAPTER ONE                            


Background of the Study

The Nigeria government perceived education as means of giving its citizen tools for effective functioning as individuals and social beings. Thus, education becomes a vital and crucial tools needed for the formation of minds from childhood to adulthood in a designed environment called school where learning and the acquisition of skills can take place for the total development of individual, the society and the nation as a whole (Ogunkoya, 2008). The overall aim of education is to shape the behavior of an individual, so that he or she can perform most effectively within his social milieu.

Examination has been generally accepted as the best means of assessment. It is a formal test of knowledge or ability. In fact, in a school setting, examination is a means of evaluating the quantity of knowledge a student has acquired within a specific period of time. Adekunle (2013) sees examination as an instrument used for the assessment of individual skills and knowledge-content, both in general and specific area of study. Teaching and learning become more effective when the students are subjected to an examination process to determine the extent to which the students have assimilated the content of the instruction given and the teacher can also assess himself from the performance of the students.

Unfortunately, all these important means of assessing students has become ineffective as all forms of malpractice has been introduced into the system. Adesina (2010) traced the history of examination malpractice in Nigeria to 1914. When there was a leakage of the Cambridge examination. Cheating became widespread in schools hence in 1967, the Alexander Commission was set up as a special commission of inquiry to investigate the incidences of malpractice in Nigeria. In 1977, there was a widespread leakage of the West Africa School Certificate Examination questions. Government took it as a challenge to address issues of examination malpractice. A special conference was held in that regard at Ibadan in 1986. Decrees were promulgated, schools were sanctioned, results cancelled and invigilators arrested all in a bid to curb malpractice.

The irony of it all is that despite the several attempts made by school authorities, government agencies, parents and church leaders in trying to concentise the Nigerian students on the evils of examination malpractice, this menace is still in its increase in the various schools. There is the need to find out the causes of examination malpractice in Nigerian schools.

Although examinations are not the only instruments for assessing students’ knowledge in the secondary schools, it has emerged as the major established yardstick and the most practical way of assessment.

This has led to students devising different types of methods to pass examinations at all cost. Some of these methods are impersonation, exchange of answer scripts by students writing relevant information on parts of the body and pieces of paper etc. (Anan, 2005).

Examination malpractice can be defined as an act of wrong doing, contrary to official rules, and is designed to place a candidate at unfair advantage; it is a careless, illegal or unacceptable behavior by a candidate in a formal test of his knowledge or ability in a particular subject (Philemon, 2007).

It could be said to be an act of omission or commission which comprises the validity and integrity of any examination (Okwu, 2010) further stated analysis is counter – practice that is against ethics of examination, it is an act of disrespect to all rules and regulations guiding, the good conduct of any examination or any evaluation process. Bearing in mind the role that education is supposed to play in nation building, a nation stands the risk of being underdeveloped in terms of accumulation of illiteracy, disease and poverty when its youths reject the honour of getting sound education and seems to opt for fraudulent activities and deceptive ways.

Liman (2007), opined that malpractices have a paralyzing effect on the developing nation. Its process makes void in our youth, future leaders and professionals a situation that leads to a future of social, political and economic insanity and bankruptcy. According to Liman engaging in examination malpractices lead to cancellation of results which means great waste of resources to society and parents and provides sources of great agony and injustice to innocent students.

It is any activity of a student or group of students whose purpose is to give any of them higher grades than they would likely receive on the basis of their own achievement. It is an illegal or unethical behavior by someday in the process of testing an examinee’s ability or knowledge by means of question (Ikupa, 2007). Oluyeba and Daramola (2002) remarked that examination malpractice include the following  examination  malpractice is any irregular behavior exhibited by a candidate or anybody charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination which contravenes the rules and regulation governing the conduct of such examination. Similarly, Kibler (2008), defined examination malpractices as forms of cheating and plagiarism that involve students giving or receiving unauthorized assistance in an academic exercise or receiving credit for work that is not their own.

Examination malpractice is not a recent phenomenon or is it peculiar to Nigeria or African but it is a global issue (Ikupa, 2007). However, the alarming rate of its increase in Nigeria calls for novel ways to readdress the situation. Examination misconduct has some social and psychological dimensions, which the counselor should address with holistic intervention. Fatai (2005) defines it as any irregular act exhibited by candidates or anybody charged with the conduct of examination, which is clearly a breach of the rules governing the conduct and integrity of the examination.

It is viewed as any act carried out before, during and after an examination, which is against the rules set out for the proper and orderly conduct of the examination. It has been further described as an action done to gain undue advantage over other candidates as an action done to gain undue advantage over other candidates which is against the rules and regulations governing the conduct of such examination. These malpractices include misrepresentation of identity or impersonation, cheating, theft of other students’ work, tampering with the works of others, bringing prepared answers to examination halls, unethical use of academic resources, fabrication of results and showing disregard to academic regulations (Gross 2013, Owuamariam 2015).

They have also been regarded by researchers (Omotosho, 2002, Hurwitz and Hurwitz, 2014) as dishonesty in examinations perpetrated by a person or a group of persons. Common observation show that examination malpractices occur. It assumed a frightening proportion in Nigeria. This therefore should be a concern to stakeholders in education. In view of therefore going instances of examination malpractices, hence, this study intends to examine causes and consequences of examination malpractices among accounting senior secondary school students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

Statement of the Problem

There are various challenges confronting teaching and learning in this contemporary times. The rate at which students get involved in examination malpractices is outrageously alarming. This has led to lackadaisical attitudes on the part of students to face their studies very well.

This is because, they are rest assured that there will be some assistance in form examination malpractices during examinations periods. It has now become a herculean task for stakeholders and concerned authorities to find a lasting solution to the examination malpractices that have permeated the educational sectors of our dear country, Nigeria. The consequence of examination malpractice could be producing uneducated graduates and being hell bent to cut corners for every successful student intends to have. It is against this backdrop, the researcher intends to closely scrutinize the cause and consequences of examination malpractices among accounting students in senior secondary schools in Ikere local Government Area of Ekiti state

Purpose of the Study

          The purpose of this study is to examine causes and consequences of examination malpractices among accounting senior secondary school students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study intends to specifically;

  1. Find out the causes of examination malpractices among secondary school students.
  2. Establish the consequences of examination malpractices on secondary school students’ academic performance in accounting.
  3. Ascertain influence of teachers on examination malpractices among the students.
  4. Proffer solutions to problems of examination malpractices among secondary school students.

Significance of the Study

The imperativeness of this study cannot be underrated. The study will be of high significance in that it will help the following categories of people in the following ways; teachers, parent, students and school administrators to consider the negative effects of examination of malpractices among accounting students in secondary schools.


This study will serve as an eye opener to the teachers in knowing the negative effects / consequences of the act of examination malpractices. This research work will serve as information to the teachers on existing forms of examination malpractice / misconduct practiced by students as well as ways of controlling them. Some teachers are no longer dedicated to their school timetable. Some deliver half-baked lessons. They leave their notes for students to copy. Such students copy whatever and hand it back to the teacher who does not care whether students understand the content of the lesson or not. No students want to fail. They therefore seek for means to succeed. These students therefore engage themselves in various forms of examination malpractice.

School Authorities

The school authorities will benefit immensely from this study, as it will help keep them informed on the recent techniques involved in examination malpractice causes and at the same time open their eyes to the need to.

Inability of the school authority to provide adequate facilities such as seats, electricity etc., hinders learning. A situation whereby six cluster on a seat meant for three students is just unhealthy for smooth examination.


Government would not be left out in the list of the beneficiaries of this study. The research work will help the government to see reasons why trained and qualified teachers should be recruited into our secondary schools, why seminars and workshops should be organized by the government for the teachers to enable update their knowledge.         


This study will in no small measure assist parents and the society at large in knowing what their children and wards do in school and thus, see ways of assisting them to learn and concentrate more on their studies and depend less on external studies help during examination. Most parents and guardians do not provide the basic materials needed by their wards. Many students in our secondary schools do not have textbooks, writing materials etc. It is a well-known fact that lack of needed necessary educational materials, make learning difficult let alone examination preparation.


Students will be derived benefits from this study. It will expose the extent to which students are involved in examination malpractices. It will help them to know the way out of the menace of examination malpractices. Equally,  it will guide them step up their reading culture in order to come out in flying colour in their various examinations.


It is expected that this study will proffer salient information that would assist the society at large to rise up and curtail the level to examination malpractices in our secondary schools.  There is no gainsaying in the fact this study will go along a way to unravel to society in general, the various strategies students are using in examination malpractices. Succinctly put, the study will contribute significantly to impetus society has to wipe out any form of examination malpractices among the students.

Future Researcher

The would-be researchers in the related topic of this study will find this study as a point of reference to substantiate their facts and figures.  It will serve as a foundational premise to fall back upon in carrying out their researches in the shortest possible time.

Curriculum Planners

It is expected that this study would help the curriculum planners to map out the curriculum in line with students’ ability and cognitive level. So that the rate of examination can be brought to bearest minimum. Without any iota of doubt, the study will point out some lopsided areas in the curriculum that makes students to indulge in examination malpractices.

Finally, if the recommendations of the study are applied, it will go a long way to instill discipline in examination and bring examination malpractices to a limited occurrence.

Scope of the Study

The research study is limited to secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state. It deals secondary schools teachers in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

Research Questions               

The following questions are raised to the guide this research work:

  1. What are the causes of examination malpractices among secondary school students?
  2. What are the consequences of examination malpractices on secondary school students’ academic performance in accounting?
  3. What are influences of teachers on examination malpractices among the students?
  4. What are the panaceas to problems of examination malpractices among secondary school students?

Definition of Terms   

          The following terms were defined as operationally used in this study.

Adulthood: refers to a person who is intellectually and emotionally matured.

Citizen: refers to a person who has full rights in a state.

Conceptualization: refers to conceiving of an idea or plan.

Contravenes:  refers to going against the law

Dishonesty: refers to an intention to cheat.

Disposition: refers to arrangement, placing in order.

Fraudulent: refers to an act of deceit.

Fabrication: refers to a forged document.

Individual Difference: refers to the unique factors that differentiate one person from another in terms of attitude, behavior, action and intelligence.

Scrap: refers to a small piece of paper



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