This aims of the study was to analyze “the effect of media and academic performance of children in pre-school level in Ikere-Ekiti Ekiti State (preschool of Ikere Ekiti in force) to achieve this, the survey research method was used. subjects were drawn from the preschool of Ikere Ekiti using the questionnaire and sampling technique and purposive sampling. Research questions guided the study. Research findings showed that a great number of pupils in preschool of Ikere Ekiti has access to the internet. To this end, the researcher recommended that sites should be created for education purposes as well. This is to create a balance between social networking and academic activities of students to avoid setbacks in the academic performance of the students.


Front page





Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE                                                         

Background History of the Study ­

Statement of the problem

Objective of the Study

Research Question

Scope of the Study

significance of the Study

Definition of terms




theoretical Framework

The Concept of mass media

Classification of the Media

Characteristics of Mass Media

The Concept of Internet

Social Effect of the Internet

The Concept of Social Media

Type of Social Media

Effect of social medial on the academic performance of pupils

Social media for academic purpose

summary of Literature Review



Research Design

Area of the Study

Population of the Study

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Validity of the Instrument

Method of Data Analysis



Discussion of  Findings










Background of the Study

Contemporary education is an indispensable asset and factor in the solution of the modern equations whether in terms of individual self actualization, socio-economic needs, natural development and   consolidation or modification of the attitudes and behaviour of our children.  But education like other important human enterprise and human condition stems from the fact that it provides comprehensive interpretation of the fundamental issues and the events that are pertinent to them.

These philosophies are built around the teacher, environment and the children who are the cardinal pillars or reasons behind its success.  In the classroom the teacher performs the very important functions of instructions and evaluation of the pupils, control of the class, creation of congenial atmosphere for learning and motivating the children to learn.

Modern Technology in communication no doubt has turned the entire world into a “Global Village”. But as it is, technology like two sides of a coin, bring with it both the negative and positive sides. It helps people to be better informed, enlightened, and keeping abreast with world developments. Technology exposes mankind to a better way of doing things.

The world’s first commercial space communication company created by the United State Congress in 1962 was the communication satellite corporation (COMSAT). In 1964, the United State Government and eleven (11) foreign Nations signed a space communication pact. The partnership was known as “International Telecommunication Satellite Organization (INTELSAT). The internet known as the worlds “Information Super Highway” is a worldwide assemblage of Inter- Connected Computer Networks (Andrew, 2005).

In the view of Paul (2010, p.301), internet is a massive “network of networks”, a networking infrastructure which connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with each other as long as they are both connected to internet. The network consist of local area network (LAN), connecting computers in the same building while wide area network (WANs) connecting several LANs in different locations. It connects both private, commercial, Government and Academic network including a grown number of home computer.

According to Andrew (2005), “Information travels over the internet through a variety of language known as “Protocols”. The term “internet” is actually a short form for “internet networks”, which implies that internet is a network of computer networks. Computer accepts data, process it, stores it and give it out when required. It became possible for people to chat from ‘terminals’ which led to networking. A line is the part along which resources flow, while a Node is the point where lines intersect transferring resources to new lines

There is conflicting versions about the origin of the internet but the common story is that the internet is a product of a cold war. (Hafner and Lyon, 1996,). Its origin is traced back to 1957, when the Soviet Union launched ‘Sputnik 1 into space, as a reaction to this, in 1958, the United State founded the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), a special agency under the department of defense whose mission was to develop a long term highly innovative and hazard research projects (Cartoni and Tarding, 2006,).

In 1962, the air force wanting to maintain the military’s ability to transfer information around the country even if a given area was destroyed in an enemy’s attack, commissioned leading computer scientist to do so. ARPANET, the first prototype of the internet, was developed by the ARPA department and saw the light in 1969 when four (4) of United States Universities (University of California Los Angeles, University of California Santa Barbara, Stanford Research Institute Polo Atto, and University of Utah) were connected by network of computers (Lorenzo and Stefano,2010).

Leonard Klein rock of UCLA successfully developed the first computer network through “packet switching” to the concept of “distributed network”, two fundamental concurrent inventions in the field of computer science, packet switching is a process that allows division of messages into packets and sending them to their destination following different routes, once they arrive at their destination, they are all recomposed into the original message. Paul in 1960 developed the concept of distributed network funded by United States Air force at the research and development corporation (RAND) which is aimed at developing a telecommunication network which can stand a nuclear war. Paul (1964).

The growth of accelerated in the second half of the 1980s, through computer protocol (Tcp/lp) Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol which was adopted by ARPANET (Vinton, 1969 UCLA) in 1983 and is still the core of internet. ‘The transition of Tcp/lp was perhaps the most important event that will take place in the invention of the internet? After the installation of Tcp, the network could branch everyone’ (Hafner and Lyon, 1998, p.249).In the same year, after the end of ARPANETs experimental phase, the network was split into two; A civilian network for the computer research community (ARPA internet) and military network (MILNET). In 1980, ARPANET was replaced by NSFANET created by National Science Foundation and in 1990, ARPANET was officially decommissioned and the commercial use of the internet was allowed in 1991, (Berners-Lee, 2000).

Daniel (1995), the internet was just one networking system among many others such as Usenet, Fido net, Mintel, AT$T, but with advent of the web, the internet became by far the most important networking system. That led to what is now known as internet, a global network of interconnected computers that communicate freely, share and exchange information Paul, (2010).

Statement of the Problem

Since the advent of social media sites in the 1990s, it is assumed in some quarters that the academic performance of children is facing a lot of neglect and challenges in the pre-school level. There is a deviation, distraction and divided attention between social networking activities and their academic work.

Objectives of the Study

The broadly objective of this study is to examine the effect of social media onacademic performance of  children in pre- school level in Ikere Ekiti ; Focusing on  selected primary schools children in Ikere Ekiti.

The specific objectives of the study are to:

1) To find out the various social networking sites the children had access to.

2) To find out how often the children in pre-school level go online.

3) To determine how many hours the children in pre-school go online spend in social networking activities daily.

4) To ascertain how the use of social media has affected the academic performance of the children in pre-school in Ikere Ekiti.

Research Questions

  1. What social networking sites do the children in pre- had access to?
  2. How often do the children in primary school go online?
  3. How many hours do the children Primary School spend on social networking activities?
  4. How has the use of social media affected the academic performance of the children in primary school?



Scope of the Study

The essence of this research work is to primarily study social media and academic performance of children in pre-school level Ikere Ekiti. The research intends to focus on children in pre-school level or easy analysis of data. This will reduce cost and avoid complexity that may arise as a result of having a very large population. But since in most cases the characteristics of children are generally similar, the research findings would be generalized to include all in selected primary six pupils.

Significance of the Study

The study will help researchers with more information on the effect of social media and academic performance of children in pre-school level. It will be relevant in assisting pupil in understanding the diversity of social media. It will provide relevance material for children and other researchers undertaking similar research.

Definition of Key Terms

The following are key terms used in the Research Work:

  1. Social Media– They is forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology. Kaplan and Helen (2010) defined Social Media as a group of internet based application that allows the creation and exchange of user generated content.
  2. Social Networking Sites – A website where people put information about them and can send to others.
  3. Social Networking – The use of internet to make information about yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest with to send messages to them.
  4. Media – Are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. “They are messages communicated through a mass medium to a number of people”(Bittner, 1980, p.10).
  5. Academic – It is concerned with Studying from books as opposed by a practical work.
  6. Children – Someone who is Studying at a elementary school level. Someone who is very interested in a particular subject.
  7. Computer – A computer is a machine that receives or stores or process data quickly according to a stored program.




The literature for this study will be reviewed under the following sub-heading;

  1. Theoretical Framework
  2. The Concept Of Mass Media
  • Classification of the media
  • Characteristics of mass communication
  • Communication
  • Functions of mass media
  1. The Concept Of Internet
  • Features of the internet
  • Social effect of the internet
  1. The Concept Of Social Media
  • Mobile social media
  • Types of social media
  • Social media network and students
  • Technology, social media and student’ academic work
  • Uses of social media
  • Social media and academic performance
  • Effects of social media on the academic performance of pupil
  • Social media for academic purpose
  1. The Concept Of Social Networking Site Or Services
  • Impact of social networking site
  • Social networking education
  • Constraints in education
  • Social networking and Nigeria

Summary of Literature Review



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Updated: March 9, 2018 — 7:36 am

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