1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In Nigeria, the effect of inadequate animal protein intake is felt more by a large proportion of the population especially in the rural areas Ogle, M. (2013). Poultry meat is a good source of animal protein and can contribute immensely in boosting the consumption level of animal protein. The prohibitive increase in the cost of input especially that of feed is among the constraints in commercial broiler production (Madubuike & Ekenyem, 2001). Ensuring more net return and minimizing high expenditure for feed are the main challenges, for which many research strategies have been trying to address through the inclusion of feed supplements and feed additives in the diets of broiler chicken.
A major feed additive that has been extensively used is antibiotics. Antibiotics use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which include not only the treatment or prophylaxis of infection but also the use of sub-therapeutic doses in animal feed to promote growth and improve feed efficiency in contemporary intensive animal farming (Ogle, 2013). Incidentally, their use in animal feed has shown several side effects such as resistance towards the drug and evidence of resistant strains that become zoonotic (Wegener et al., 1999). The emergence of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria has led to international restriction on the use of antibiotics in animal feeds and their use became restricted in many region of the orld. (Phillip et al 204) and was placed under surveillance by the national organisation overseeing poulry production. Such as the (FDA) Food and Drug Adinstration in USA, DERAin UK, and NDLA in Nigeria. Consequently, the poultry industry is under great pressure to minimize their use in animal feed and seek alternatives. These alternatives can be found in the use of herbs and spices medicinal plants, have attracted attention due to their wide range of potential beneficial effects.
Natural medicinal products originating from herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for farm animals (Guo, 2003). The efficacy and importance of a particular feedstuff/feed ingredient in poultry production is evaluated from its effect on the production performance/traits of the birds. Furthermore, valuable information can be obtained from the study of the haematological parameters. This stems from the fact that the blood serves as an important index of physiological, pathological and nutritional status of an animal. Information obtained from haematological assay, apart from being useful for diagnostic and management purposes could equally be incorporated into breeding programmes (Elagib & Ahmed, 2011). Herbal plants which is nutritionally adequate and locally available in Nigeria that can be harnessed as feed additives is ginger (Ademola et al., 2009).
Ginger or ginger root is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. Ginger is a rhizomatous herbaceous plant, whose rhizome is used medicinally. Ginger contains several compounds and enzymes including gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols (Rivlin, 2001; Zhao et al., 2011). These compounds have been reported to have antimicrobial, antioxidative and pharmacological effects (Al-Amin et al., 2006; Tapsell et al., 2006; Ali et al, 2008).
The use of ginger supplement as substitute for antibiotic growth promoters is desirable for greater productivity of poultry, increased palatability of feed, nutrient utilization, appetite stimulation, increase in the flow of gastric juice and piquancy to tasteless food (Owen and Amakiri, 2012). The haematological constituent of an animal reflects the physical responsiveness of the animal to its internal and external environment (Esonu et al., 2001); they are very essential in diagnosing pathogenic and metabolic disorders and are vital tools to assessing the health status of an individual or flock. The changes in haematological parameters are often used to determine the effects of stress or toxic condition due to environmental, nutritional or other factors. Normal ranges of haematological parameters can be altered by the ingestion of plant constituents such as Ginger (Ajagbonna et al., 1999). Ginger therefore is a potential rhizome with a wide range of medicinal effects which has been used in different forms, doses and durations in broiler and layer production. Documented effects of Ginger on poultry feed on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, weight gain, haematological parameters and serum chemistry with their possible mechanisms of action abound in literature. Various feed additives are used in poultry to maximize net returns and carcass quality of birds.
In the past, growth-promoting antibiotics were used as feed additives; however, these were associated with storage of undesirable residues in the meat and eggs of poultry products which may be harmful to man when consumed, and have been banned or limited in many countries due to these suspected residual effects (Diarra et al., 2011). As a result, natural alternatives to antibiotics, such as herbs and medicinal plants, have attracted attention due to their wide range of potential beneficial effects (Manesh et al., 2012). Thus the use of plants such as Ginger as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives is becoming more and more popular (Joke and Susan, 2007). It is therefore necessary to investigate the ematology and serum of broiler chicken fed supplemented ginger diet.
The consumption of met is eing hamper because some of the antibiotics they are fed with in other to get them ready for ???? for every market resulted in high deposition cholesterol which could be harmful to consumer.
Based on investigation, it is justified that ginger may act as a pro-nutrient because of the vast active ingredients it has been reported to contain which can reduce the bad cholesterol meat and improve the nutrient value of the animal product of buyer. Hands Healing (2011) reported that ginger contains volatile oils like borneol, camphene, citral, eucalyptol, linalool, phenllandrene, zingiberine, zingiberol (gingerol, zingirone and shogaol) and resin. Medicinal properties are contained in the chemicals responsible for the taste, the most noteworthy being gingerol and shogaol (Hands Healing, 2011). A protein digesting enzyme (Zingibain) found in ginger is believed to improve digestion as well as kill parasites and their eggs. It was also reported to enhance antibacterial and anti-inflammatory actions and it is thought to assist other antibacterials, such as antibiotics, by up to 50% (Hands Healing, 2011).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this research work is to investigate the hematology and serum of broiler chicken fed supplemented ginger diet. The specific objectives are to;
- determine the commercial ginger with respect to its proximate composition, mineral and phyto-chemical constituents.
- determine the total protein, total cholesterol, total albumin, total globulin, total triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of broilers fed test diet.
- Determine the effects of diets of feed fed on hematology in terms of red blood cell, white blod cell, pack CV volume, Hb; Hemoglobin, Concentration MCV (mean Corpuscular volum) MCHC mean Corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,
- Determine the effect of feed fed on serum parameter in term of LDL, HDL, T Cholesterol, TG, TP, ALB, and GLOB
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