THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LIVER OF FEMALE SWISS ALBINO RATS FED WITH AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WATER MELON SEEDS (Citrullus lanatus)
The study was carried out to evaluate the histopathology effect of extract of Citrullus lanatus in saline and paracetamol induced liver damaged rats. Forty female rats were divided into six groups of six animals per group. The normal group (2 group) were induced with saline and paracetamol, while another two groups were induced with methanolic extract and another two groups with aqueous extract to heal the damage caused by the paracetamol and saline. The animals in the treated category were induced with 200mg/kg aqueous extract, 400mg/kg aqueous extract, 1g/kg methanolic extract, 2g/kg methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus respectively per body weight for 28days. Our findings suggest that C. lanatus exhibited reversal effects on these selected rats which were previously damaged by saline and paracetamol.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF PLATES
- THE LIVER
- SYMPTOMS OF DAMAGE
2.0 WATER MELON
2.1 SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION
2.2 HISTORY OF WATER MELON
2.3 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF CITRULLUS
2.4 USES OF WATER MELON
2.5 MEDICINAL VALUES
2.6 DISEASE OF WATER MELON
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 EXPERIMENTAL SITE
3.2 PLANT MATERIAL
3.3 PREPARATION OF EXTRACT
3.3.1 CITRULLUS LANATUS EXTRACT
3.4 PREPARATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT
3.5 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
3.6 WEIGHT DETERMINATION
3.7 EXPEERIMENTAL DESIGN
3.71 ANIMAL GROUPING
3.8 INDUCTION OF ANIMALS
3.9 PREPARATION OF ANIMALS
3.10 SECTION CUTTING
1.1 The Liver
The liver is the largest gland in the body of mammals after the skin and it is involved in many metabolic activities among which are; detoxification of toxic substances, glycogen storage and bile secretion (Keith et al, 2010). The liver is reddish-brown, in animals. Also, most proteins are synthesized in the liver prior to entering the blood (Murray et al, 2009). The liver is responsible for metabolism and detoxification of most of the components that enter the body (Swapnil, 2011).The liver which is generally considered to be the primary organ responsible for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis by regulating plasma lipoprotein metabolism and lipid output of the bile (Goldstein, 2002).
The liver is the most complex organ in the body (Kumar et al., 2000). A single liver cell can carry out more than 500 separate, specialized metabolic activities (Solomon etal., 1999). Among these specialized activities the most significant one is glycogen storage. The decrease or increase of glycogen storage of the liver is related to the diet of the subject. (Andrei et al., 2000).
It is located behind the ribcage on the upper right side of the abdomen. The liver has the unique ability to regenerate its own tissue—as much as three-quarters of the liver can be lost, and the organ can grow back or expand to its original size within several weeks. This allows people who need transplants to receive part of a living or deceased donor’s liver.
The liver is divided into four lobes; these are in turn composed of multiple lobules which contain the hepatocytes, or working liver cells. The liver has an extensive blood supply—about 1½ quarts of blood flow through it every minute. It receives oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery. The portal vein delivers blood containing nutrients, toxins, and other substances absorbed from the intestines to the liver. The liver filters this blood, then sends it on to the heart via the hepatic vein.
The liver is responsible for some 500 bodily functions. It plays a role in digestion, sugar and fat metabolism, and the body’s immune defence. It processes almost everything a person eats, breathes, or absorbs through the skin. About 90% of the body’s nutrients pass through the liver from the intestines. The liver converts food into energy, stores nutrients, and produces blood proteins. The liver also acts as a filter to remove harmful substances from the blood. In the developing foetus, blood cells are produced in the liver. The liver plays an important role in the digestion and processing of food. Liver cells produce bile, a greenish-yellow fluid that aids the digestion of fats and the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients. Bile is delivered to the small intestine through the bile duct; when there is no food to digest, extra bile is stored in a small organ called the gallbladder located beneath the liver. By-products from the breakdown of drugs and toxic substances processed by the liver are carried in the bile and excreted from the body.
The liver is responsible for the breakdown of insulin and other hormones. The liver breaks down bilirubin via glucuronidation, facilitating its excretion into bile. The liver is responsible for the breakdown and excretion of many waste products. It plays a key role in breaking down or modifying toxic substances (e.g., methylation) and most medicinal products in a process called drug metabolism. This sometimes results in toxication, when the metabolite is more toxic than its precursor. Preferably, the toxins are conjugated to avail excretion in bile or urine. The liver breaks down ammonia into urea as part of the urea cycle, and the urea is excreted in the urine.
The liver plays a crucial role in detoxifying substances that are harmful to the body, including alcohol, drugs, solvents, pesticides, and heavy metals. When a person is exposed to high levels of these chemicals, the liver can become overwhelmed. Toxins are delivered to the liver by the portal vein. The liver processes these chemicals and excretes them in the bile. The liver also processes and excretes toxic by-products of normal metabolism (such as ammonia) and excess hormones (in particular, sex hormones such as oestrogen). Many drugs— including common over-the-counter drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), most anti-HIV drugs, and certain herbal remedies—are processed by the liver and can cause liver damage. People should be especially cautious about combining alcohol, multiple drugs and herbs. If the liver is damaged it may not be able to break down and excrete drugs efficiently, which could potentially lead to dangerously high blood levels and intensified side effects.
1.1.1 SYMPTOMS OF DAMAGE
A normal liver performs its functions adequately. However, if the liver is damaged, it can no longer carry out its normal functions. Damage to the liver can be as a result of toxins, drugs and alcohol and all these lower the ability of the liver.
If the liver is unable to filter out toxins and metabolic by-products such as ammonia, these chemicals may build up in the blood, leading to impaired brain and mental functioning, personality changes (encephalopathy), and (in severe cases) coma and death. People with long-term liver damage may also develop liver cancer. Consequently, the report that the use of natural plant products for therapeutic purposes is growing and iss largely embraced by the general population (Osifoet al., 2011). The shift of attention from synthetic drugs to natural plant products has been reported by Dada and Ikuerowo (2009). At least 35,000 plant species have been recognized (Kong et al., 2003) and large proportion have been used for the treatment of several human ailments for thousands of years (Yakubuet
al., 2007). Of interest, are the therapeutic uses of Carica papaya -commonly known as pawpaw. In Nigeria, Carica papaya is one of the most popular, cheapest economically important fruit grown and consumed for its nutritional content.
Baiyewu and Amusa(2005), According to available literature, every drug is associated with hepatotoxicity almost certainly due to its ability to generate free radicals and to cause disturbance in hepatocyte biochemistry (Fernandez- Checa and Kaplowitz, 2005). Hence, Carica papaya like other drugs is metabolized by the liver of many animals and if this be the case, Carica papaya may subject the liver to a variety of diseases and disorders reference to the fact of Fernandez- Checa and aplowitz, (2005) stated above. Watermelon is mostly intercroped with cereals or root crops (Malanyaire, 1998; Ikeorgu, 1991) in the same way as other cucurbits (Ndoroet al. 2007). From a nutritional point of view, the red and sweet watermelon flesh is an important source of carotenoids, including lycopene and beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A (Seliavanet al., 2001; Edwards et al., 2003).
The objectives of this research project work are:
- To determine the effect of excessive amount of paracetamol and salin given to the experimental rats.
- To check if methanolic and aqueous extracts of Citrulluslanatusseed will heal the damage caused by the excessive amount of paracetamol on the liver of experimental rats.
This study is important as it discuss the damage caused by the excessive intake of paracetamol on the liver of white rats and the necessary measure to take in order to return the liver to its natural state.
HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL
» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)
|Bank: FIRST BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 3116913871 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 OR Click Here|
|Bank: ACCESS BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 0766765735 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here|
|Bank: HERITAGE BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 1909068248 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here|