THE INFLUENCE OF STAFF MOTIVATION ON JOB PERFORMANCE
(A CASE STUDY OF COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IKERE-EKITI)
The study investigates the Influence of Staff Motivation on job Performance in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti.103 respondents were selected across the department of the institution. The population of the study was 120 workers of College of Education Ikere-Ekiti The study used descriptive statistics (frequencies, mean, and percentages) to answer three research questions posed for the study. The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was used to test the three hypotheses that guided the study. The result obtained from the analysis showed that there existed relationship between employee motivation and the organizational performance. The study reveals that extrinsic motivation given to workers in an organization has a significant influence on the workers performance. This is in line with equity theory which emphasizes that fairness in the remuneration package tends to produce higher performance from workers. The researcher recommends that all institution should adopt extrinsic rewards in their various institutions to increase productivity. On the bases of these findings, employers are continually challenged to develop pay policies and procedures that will enable them to attract, motivate, retain and satisfy their employees. The researcher therefore suggest that more research should be conducted on the relationship and influence of rewards on workers performance using many private and public institution which will be a handy tool that could be used to provide solutions to individual conflict that has resulted from poor reward system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3. Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Factors Affecting Employees’ Motivation
2.3 Theories of Motivation
2.4 Types of Motivation
2.5 Application of Motivation and Implication on
2.6 Implications on staff performance
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Design of the study
3.3 Area of the study
3.4 Population of study
3.5 Sample and sampling techniques
3.6 Instrument for data collection
3.7 Reliability of the instrument
3.8 Method of data collection
3.9 Method of data analysis
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Demographic information of respondents
4.3 Analysis of research questions
4.4 Test of hypotheses
4.5. Discussion of findings
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Findings of Demographic characteristics of Respondents
5.2.1 Findings from the three research questions
5.2.2 Findings from the two hypotheses
5.7 Suggestions for further study
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Abraham Maslow’s
Figure 2 simplified model of expectancy theory
Figure3. Frequency distribution of respondents by sex………………………………….
Figure 4 Frequency distribution of respondent by level of Education
Figure 5 Frequency distribution of respondent by Age
Figure 6 Frequency distribution of respondent by years of service
Figure 6 Analysis of research questions
Figure 7 Analysis of research hypotheses
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Motivation means so many things to different people. Their impact on the individual depends also on his perception of what he considers to be of value to him and invariably influences his action or non-action. Motivation can be described as a set of incentives monetary of otherwise, reward and punishment systems which determine or influence staff performance and altitude to work. It is a production of human resource management and its impact goes on a long way in determining the quality and quantity of production and the level of industrial and labour harmony or disharmony in the organization. Motivation can also be defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort.
Good remuneration has been found over the years to be one of the policies the organization can adopt to increase their workers performance and thereby increase the organizations productivity. Also, with the present global economic trend, most employers of labour have realized the fact that for their organizations to compete favourably, the performance of their employees goes a long way in determining the success of the organization. On the other hand, performance of employees in any organization is vital, not only for the growth of the organization, but also for the growth of individual employees (Meyer and Peng, 2006). An organization must know who are its outstanding workers, those who need additional training and those not contributing to the efficiency and welfare of the company or organization. Also, performance on the job can be assessed at all levels of employment such as: personnel decision relating to promotion, job rotation, job enrichments etc.(Aidis,2005; Meyer and Peng,2006).
In Nigeria, interest in effective use of rewards to influence workers performance to motivate them began in the 1970’s. So many people have carried out researches in this area, some of which are Oloko (2003), Kayode (2003), Nwachukwu (2004), Meyer and Nguyen (2005) and Egwurudi (2008). The performance of workers has become important due to the increase concern of human resources and personnel experts about the level of output obtained from workers due to poor remuneration. This attitude is also a social concern and is very important to identify problems that are obtained in industrial setting due to nonchalant attitudes of managers to manage their workers by rewarding them well to maximize their productivity .In view of this, this study attempts to identify the influence of staff motivation on job performance in order to address problems arising from motivational approaches in organizational settings. Vroom (1964), supported the assumptions that workers tend to perform more effectively if their wages are related to performance which is not based on personal bias or prejudice, but on objective evaluation of an employee’s merit. Though several technique of measuring job performance has been developed, in general, the specific technique chosen varies with the type of work. For achieving prosperity, organization designs different strategies to compete with their rivals and for increasing the performance of the organizations. A very few organizations believe that the human personnel and employees of any organization are its main assets which can lead them to success or if not focused well, to decline. Unless and until, the employees of any organization are satisfied with it, are motivated for the tasks fulfillment and goals achievement and encouraged, none of the organization can progress or achieve success. All these issues call for research efforts, so as to bring to focus how an appropriate reward package can jeer up or influence workers to develop positive attitude towards their job and thereby increase their productivity.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
So many problems have be found or discovered to be a hindrance to the entire business sectors. In the since that most enterprise has not achieved significant supply of corporative workforce and optimum productivity. It has been noted that employee’s often complain about their wages and salary administration, poor working condition, welfare, effective supervision, provision of adequate machinery and materials at work place, provision of proper appliance and their maintenances etc. the above complaints are indications that things are not going smoothly with the employee’s on the other hand, management always ask why the employee’s are not longer productive or low level of productivity in the organization. We pay them good salaries provide good working condition and environment and give excellent fringe benefits, the solution to above management questions often point to the managers that employee’s are either not properly motivated or not satisfied with their job. Except opportunities are provided at work place to satisfy the workers needs they will continue to have decreased production and performance will always remain law. It was such alarming question that led some human relation experts into finding out what gives on individual’s job performance. These relationships between motivation and job performance have made many researchers work intensively on this area to find out dependable solutions to the problems.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study will among other things try:
- To examine the effect of employee’s motivation on organizational performance
- To determine the factors that increase motivation of employees in an organization
- To examine the relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In other to achieve the objective of this research effort will be made to provide answers to the following research questions:
- How does employee motivation affect organizational performance?
- How does increase in motivational tools affect employees in an organization?
- Does employee motivation have any relationship with organizational performance?
In other to attain the goals of this study the following research hypothesis are formulated for accurate empirical validation of this study:
Ho1: Employee motivation does not have any effect on organizational performance
Ho2: Increase in motivational tools does not have any significant effect on employee performance
Ho3: There is no relationship between employee’s motivation and organizational effectiveness.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study could be useful to college of education Ikere-Ekiti, in improving their level of productivity and employee‟s performance in future. It will also aid management in making decision on how employees could be motivated, not only with money but other incentives.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was carried out on college of education Ikere-Ekiti, the data collected and other vital information are on non academic staff of college of education. This study strictly treats the influence of staff motivation on job performance.
Also the study does not show any concern or analyzing on any institution around it environment. The study should have covered both academics and non academics but due to time and financial constraint, it was limited to non academics staff of college of education Ikere-Ekiti.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work is specifically on the influence of staff motivation on job performance in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.
COST: the cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.
Time: the time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MOTIVATION: it a social process in which some members try to influence others, to work harder, and work more efficiency. It is a person‟s state of mind which energizes channels and sustains behavior to achieve the person‟s needs. Motivation is also the willingness to do something and its conditioned actions and ability to satisfy some needs for the individual. It is also a driving force by which human‟s achieve their goals.
MOTIVE: The desire, wishes, and similar forces that channels human behavior toward goals. According to Collins English Dictionary: Motive is the psychological feature that arouses an organisms to action toward a desired goal, the reasons for an action that which gives purpose and desired goal, the reason for an action, that which gives purpose and direction to behavior. Motive is divided into two: Rational and irrational motive:
RATIONAL MOTIVE: A motive that can be defended by reasoning or logical argument While IRRATIONAL MOTIVE: A motive that is inconsistent with reason or logic.
INCENTIVES: A thing that motivates or encourages one to do something or a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment. Payment made to employee over and above their basic pay in order to encourage them to increase production, the payment are made on result achieve.
BONUS: A payment or gift added to what is usual or expected, in particular. Or an amount of money added to wages on a seasonal basic, especially as a reward for good performance. Part of the employee remuneration that is related in some way to value quantity of work done, especially a payment that is made at the description of management rather according to a set formula.
EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: This is contribution employee‟s make to organization goals meaning how effective an employee carries out job responsibilities.
MOTIVATOR: Forces that induce individual to act or perform forces that influence human behavior.
BEHAVIOR: Manner of one‟s conduct, demeanor department.
PRODUCTIVITY: Efficiency to do that which is expected and as expected. The relative efficiency of economic activity.
PERFORMANCE: Achievement and attainment of state goals. The act of carrying out a duty or accomplishing something such as a task or action
FRINGE BENEFIT: Any non wage or salary payment or benefit granted to employees by employers, example include pension plans, profit-sharing programs, vacation pay, and company paid life, health and unemployment insurance.
STAFF TURNOVER: Staff turnover is their leaving work or employment by termination, resignation, dismissal, retirements, death etc.
Aidis, R.; (2005) Entrepreneurship in transition countries: a. (Economics Working Papers 61). Centre for the Study of Economic and Social Change in Europe, SSEES, UCL: London, UK.
Egwurudi (2008). Vroom Job Satisfaction: Effect on job characteristics Unpublished Mcs Dissertation University of Lagos, Nigeria. (1964),
Meyer and Nguyen (2005). “Foreign investment strategies and sub-national institutions in emerging markets: evidence from Vietnam”, Journal of Management Studies.
Meyer KE, Peng MW. 2005. Probing theoretically intoCentral and Eastern Europe: transactions, resources,and institutions. Journal of International BusinessStudies 36(6): 600–621.
Nwachukwu C. C.(2004).”Effective Leadership and productivity. Evidence from a national survey of industrial organization”. African Journal for the study of Social issues, 1:38-46.
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