The  purpose of the study is to investigate the place of home variables on writing performance in Junior Secondary School Students in Ekiti State. The study also determine if the place of home variables in English influence students of  English language. Review of literature was done.

The study make use of descriptive research design of the survey type method which is designed to obtained information from Junior Secondary school in Ekiti State. The sample for the study comprises of 200 students which was selected with the use of simple random sampling techniques.

The study revealed that most of the respondents accepted their home is convent for writing, parents provided books for writing, parents cross-check their writing  performance, parents allow the, to have extra lesson on essay writing after school hours. The study concluded that the role of home and school in the educational achievement of learners are very crucial and has been one of the major attention of researchers over the year. Many school have agreed that for any achievement to take place and meaningful  in academic success of students  home and school must play their role effectively and the home and school environment be made conducive in order to foster learning.

          Based on the findings, the following recommendations were put forward: Government should employee and post qualified teachers who are competent in essay writing to all secondary school in order to teach student on how to write essay. Parents should also support their children in their writing performance both at home and at school. Parents should provide all the necessary materials needed for essay writing and resource that can enhance their academic performance. Teachers should ensure they give students assignment on essay writing on daily basis. This will enable them to know  their weak point



TITLE PAGE                                                                                    I


DEDICATION                                                                                  III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                              IV

ABSTRACT                                                                                     VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           VIII


Background to the Study                                                                            1

State of the Problem                                                                         12

Purpose of the Study                                                                        12

Research Questions                                                                           13

Research Hypotheses                                                                        14

Significance of the Study                                                                            15

Delimitation of the Study                                                                           16

Definition of Terms                                                                           16


Meaning And Types  of  Writing                                                      18

The Process of Writing                                                                     27

Uses of Writing in Junior Secondary School                                              37

Home and School Environment Variables Affecting Writing            46

Parents’ Level of Education affecting Writing Skills                         46

Socio-economic Status of Parents and Writing                                 49

Home and Social Environmental Variables Affecting

Writing Performance                                                                         52

Personal Variables affecting Writing skills                                       56

Summary                                                                                          61


Research Design                                                                                63

Population                                                                                        63

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                    64

Research Instruments                                                                        64

Validity of Instruments                                                                     65


Reliability of  the Instruments                                                           65

Administration of the Instruments                                                    66

Data Analysis                                                                                   66


Results                                                                                              67

Test Hypothesis                                                                                72

Discussion                                                                                        78


Summary                                                                                          82

Conclusion                                                                                        83

Recommendations                                                                                      84

References                                                                                         85

Appendix                                                                                         88



Background to the Study

Language can be defined as the set of process or set of processes used to ensure there is agreement between the sender and the receiver for meaning assigned to the symbols and the schema for combining the use for each communication. The symbol themselves although typically not the accompanying non-verbal activity are usually described as words. The schema for combining them is usually described as grammar, Oyedeji (2003).

There are two further consideration that are discussed here in anticipation of many readers comments, the language of animal and the metal-language used in this essay. Firstly, if investigation support a hypothesis that animal of any particular species send and receive unique messages then according to this definition they are using language.

Secondly, when considering, for example a mathematics topic such as the development of real number system, one works with a deductible system of logic starting with a newer un-defined terms and unproven axioms. These are the basis of the language of the system being created and are stated in a meta-language chosen by the author of the system. The definition for language as stated in English which is also used by the meta-language by philosophers among readers (Johnson, 2008).

Language is a means of communication between members of the public in the form of symbol of the sound provided by means of said human language. Second language is a communication system that uses symbols vocal (speech sound) which are arbitrary, (Kerif, 2005).

Owen (2006) also describes the language as a socially acceptable code or conventional system for delivering concepts through the use of should and combinations of desires, symbols are governed by the provisions.

Language starts from home and what makes a home is marriage. The word “marriage” is derived from Middle English, marriage which first appeared in 1250-1300 CE. This in turn derived from old frenchmarier (to marry) and ultimately Latin marita re meaning to provide with a husband or wife and maritaire means to get married. Marriage is also called matrimony or wedlock is a socially or ritually recognized union between spouses that established right and obligation between them, between them and their children and this in turn makes up a family which serves as one important agent of socialization. Therefore language start from home, when a child is being brought into this world, it will get to a stage whereby the child will start learning how to speak language and this does not start miraculously, rather it start from the environment which the child found himself and this is family.

Family serves as an important agent of socialization. Socialization occurs throughout our life but some of the most important socialization occurs in childhood. Individual socialization is a lifelong process determined by many factors among the social factors that affect individual people in particular are social group with which a person comes into contact with. The most important social group to influence individual socialization however is family. Family provides initial human behavioral pattern in an orientation and initial inter-personal relationship, there is no better way to start than to talk about the role of family in our social development as family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. Infant are completely dependent on others to survive. Our parent or those who play the parent role are responsible for teaching the children so many things.

Family plays a key role in developing child’s language in the sense that when parents speak to their children, they learn language by listening to the parents’ speech in the world around them. Every parent speak to their children they are modeling language. Spending time with the child, playing and talking with them helps develop and facilitate his language development through interaction, Libadmin (2014).

According to (PSB) website, parent also strengthen the bond between them and their children and younger ones by regular conversation, children learn best from live speaker’s rather than recorded voices. Television and computer have their place, when combined with parent interaction. Children acquired language through interaction not only with their parents and other adults but also with other children. All normal children who grew up in normal household surrounded by conversation will acquire the language that is being used around them. And it is just easy for a child to acquire two or more languages at the same time, as long as they are regularly interacting with speakers of those languages. Language learning process for every child, the family is the primary agency of socialization. It is here that the child develops an initial sense of self. A child learn language from which is the family and continue when he gets to the stage of going to school. Family plays a remarkable role in developing child’s language, parent are child’s educators. A child’s family and home environment has a long impact on child’s language.

Home variables can be defined as various characteristics of a statistical being observed that may affect the academic performance of children when it comes to writing skills. Therefore researchers have found out some variables, some of which includes.

Socio-economic Status: This factor affect children writing performance, “Compton” who states that children from high socio-economic background tend to perform more better than that of children from low socio-economic background. “Compton” also stress further that children from high class people in the society such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, politicians and teachers tend to perform better in writing skills because they are been provided with necessary materials needed to carry out effective writing skills, Lilly (2008).

Environmental Factor: It is an indisputable fact that home environment/background exerts considerable influence on the development and academic performance of the child. The home belong to the first and major agency of socialisation and has great influence and bearing on the development of a child, environmental factor is very important in a child’s academic life. A child home environment affect his/her degree of achievements academically. Many of the distinctive characteristics of a child’s home in relation to his existence in school on writing performance. Students from home where people who are surrounded by the environment were academically standard and also good in reading and writing, such people tend to guide a child’s writing skills whenever he/she want to deviate from normal routine which makes writing skills to be effective and perfect, environment influences a child’s writing performance. A child who is exposed to an environment where by people who live in the environment are illiterate, such a child may face difficulty in writing performance, Morizon (1975).

Parental Attitudes: Parent attitude and support for children’s writing skills is very essential in the life of a child and academic performance. Parental involvement in their child’s literacy practices positively affect academic performance level of education if parent reflect in the child’s writing skill, an educated parent to guide a child writing skill by correcting the child’s mistakes and guide him where he doesn’t seem to get it right the attitude of this and of parent will reflect positively on the child’s learning skill than the attitude of a parent who do not bother to know how the child is doing academically. A parent who cares about his child’s educational career will tend to monitor the child in all aspects of his academics, such a parent are bound to know if the child is performing excellently in his/her writing ability compared to a parent who does not even bother to cross check his child’s notebook whenever he comes back from school, such attitude towards a child won’t help the situation of the child’s academically, Hams and Goofball (2007) Flori and Buchanan (2004).

Mother’s Tongue Interference: Mother’s tongue influence a child’s writing performance for instance, a child who grew up in the family where Yoruba is their native language and is been used as a basis for everyday communication. Such a child would transfer this language on his written phenomena and this could make this child pass through a lot of difficulties in order to fashion out effective writing skill compared to a child who grew up in the family where English is being used as their basis of everyday communication because a Yoruba accent cannot be used to carry out effective English writing skill. There would be a problem; mother’s Tongue influences a child’s writing skill either positively or negatively, Duwole (2008).

Gender and Writing Performance: Most studies shows that average girls do better than boys, researchers revealed that standardized achievement test also shows that females are better at spelling and perform better on test of literacy, writing and general knowledge, this research therefore revealed that female have upper hand in writing skills than male, Jacob (2002).

Writing is the ability to write something, idea in your mind to give idea or opinion in writing by using pencil, pen and felt tip, marker in the media paper, store or the other. The human learn how to write the idea or opinion in their mind. In school, the student’s learn how to make good writing and learn to convert their idea and opinion they were trained to make confident from their writing. According to an expert “writing is frequently useful preparation for some other activities in particular when students write sentences as preamable to discussion activities. We can conclude that learning can help the students to involve thinking, composing and teaching students in making the use of standard written form, Harmmer (2004)

Supemo (2006) argues that writing is a series of activities going on and involves several phases, the preparatory phase, the content development and review as well as revision of improvement.

Writing can be used as indirect means of communication to others to convert information. Activities are not easy to write because writing should be able to produce something new and can give you an idea or ideas to the reader through writing, Jonah (2006).

Nation (2009) states that writing is an activity that can usually be prepare for by work in skill of listening, speaking and reading. This preparation can make it possible for words that have been used receptively to come into productive use. Writing is a person’s ability to communicate information and ideas to someone, public, government. Also writing is not only an activity of sentences but also when people write they should organize some interesting stuffs which are experiencing or ideas in written form.

Writing again is one of the four modes of expressing language, listening, speaking, reading and writing. It is an autographic representation of speech. But the task of a writer is not just as simple as representing reality. The ability to write pre-suppose some level of morphological, lexical and syntactic knowledge as well as idiomatic knowledge meanwhile, the knowledge of idioms, syntax and morphology alone does not generate the ability to write well because writing involves much more that constructing grammatical sentences needs to be cohesive that is, they have to be concerned in ways that can be followed by readers, Leki (2005).

Writing seems to be the most difficult of other skills even among native speakers of language. Writing is therefore a crucial skill, yet every year large number of students graduate from secondary schools unable to write at the basic level required by colleges and employee, Perin (2007).

Learning to write is uniquely challenging, writing require the mastery and concurrent use of complex array of language skill from vocabulary and spelling to the ability to organize and convey ideas. Indeed the intricacies of writing make it one of the most highest forms of human expression. Researchers has come about some problem faced by the students of junior secondary school, children are encountering difficulties in writing some of which are; formation of letters to organizing their ideas, to using correct grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Proper Noun not capitalized

Example: I saw dr. smith in new york

Solution: I saw Dr. Smith in New York

Sentence Fragment

Example: Going to the grocery for milk

Solution: I am going to the grocery for milk

Run on Statement

Example: I like riding my bike after dinner, first I have to help with the dishes.

Solution: I like riding my bicycle But first I have to help with the dishes.

Lack of Subject Verb Agreements.

Example: She drive everyday

Solution: She drives every day



Incorrect Noun Plurals

Example: The berry are ripe

Solution: The berries are ripe.

Incorrect Plural and Possessive Noun

Example: The children toys were donated to a charity group

Solution: The children’s toys were donated to a charity group.

Statement of the Problem

It is revealed that the performance of many students in writing performance has fallen drastically in many junior secondary schools in Ekiti State.

It is also noted that some of the parent teachers are not good in writing due to one situation or another. There are some problem faced by the learner in that, due to some of these problems or variables to enhance effective writing skill in teaching of English language as second language (L2) will be difficult. It is on this note that this study focuses on the place of home variables on writing performance of junior secondary schools in Ekiti State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the place of home variables on writing performance of junior secondary school Ekiti State.

This study will also determine if the place of home variables influence on students of English language not only that, it is hoped that the outcome of the research will enable parent teachers to select the best method for teaching writing and will therefore enhance the performance of students of English language.

Research Analysis

The following research questions are raised;

  • Will parents’ socio-economic factor affects student’s writing performance?
  • How often do your teachers give you writing assignment?
  • How often do you use writing material?
  • Did the students have the knowledge of essay writing?
  • How often did the students have time to study?

Research Hypothesis

The following research Hypothesis is generalized;

  • Socio-economic status of parents will not significantly influence students’ writing performance.
  • Giving assignment to the student’s will not significantly influence their writing performance.
  • The use of writing materials will not significantly influence their writing performance.
  • Students’ knowledge of essay writing will not significantly influence their writing performance
  • Availability of time to study will not significantly influence their writing performance





Significance of the Study

The study could be used for other studies because it focuses on the place of home variables on writing performance among junior secondary school students.

The factor tends to lead to writing skill and better performance of English students. Moreover, the significant are to restoring writing ability of students’ to gain actual skill in deriving meaning from printed pages helping incorrect spelling, good construction of sentences, pronunciation, the appropriate use of paragraph, the use of punctuation marks and to guide them to be able to encounter a good comprehension passage etc. and helping them to solve the problem of linguistics in the message.

The relevance of this study serve the deal function of widening horizon, proper and modern methodologies for teaching writing skill. Most importantly, the study helps with language teachers, parent teachers, language students, in performing their roles during classroom interactions. Home interactions such as siblings, parent, while classroom interaction is made up of teacher to students, student to student, teacher to chalkboard etc. Similarly it helps the language students’ combine writing with other skills which help them to acquire these skills easily faster, it also help parent teachers or language teachers to have self-confidence and effectiveness that is parent-teacher efficiency.

Delimitation of the Study

The findings of this study are strictly focuses on the place of home variables on writing performances in teaching of English language among Junior secondary school students. The study is restricted to carry out the research on selected Junior Secondary Schools in Ekiti State.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined as it is used in this study:

Writing: The process of representing a language with symbol or letters, writing is a medium of human communication that represent language and emotions through inscription or recording of signs and symbols.

Skill: Ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, system and sustained effort to smoothen and adaptively carryout complex activities or job function involving ideas.

Variables: Marked by diversity or differences, a characteristics, numbers or quantity that increase or decreases overtime, or takes a different value in different situations.

Home: The place where one lives, a residence, an environment offering security and happiness, a place such as a country or town where one was born or has lived for a long period.

Performance: The result of activities of an organization or investment over a given period of time the accomplishment of a given task measured against present known standard of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed in a contract, performance is seemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.

Place: A particular position, point or average in space; a location, a portion of space, designated or available for or being used by some, a position. In a sequence of series typically one ordered on the basis of merit. A particular region center or location.




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