EFFECTS OF EXPOSITORY METHOD ENRICHED WITH IMPROVISED AND STANDARD MATERIALS ON PERFORMANCE OF LARGE CLASS BASIC SCIENCE STUDENTS,
This study investigated the Effects of Expository Method Enriched with Improvised and Standard Materials on academic Performance of Large Class of Basic Science Students , Kaduna Nigeria.The study intended to improved the academic performance, check and reduce the persistent failure among Basic Science students in large class using enriched expository method with instructional materials.The study involved pre-test, post-test quasi experimental and control group design. The population consisted of all (number of schools in study area ) which consist of a total of four thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine (4,899) students. A sample of 392 students was drawn from three schools and divided into two experimental groups and one control group.The experimental group I was taught using improvised instructional materials. The experimental group II was taught using standard instructional materials while control group was taught using lecture method without instructional materials. The instrument used for data collection was Basic Science Performance Test (BSPT) with reliability coefficient of 0.83. Five research questions and hypotheses were formulated and tested. The research questions were answered descriptively using mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested using t-test at p < 0.05 level of significant.Findings from the analysis of the data revealed that there was significant difference in the mean scores of experimental and control groups in favour of experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of male and female students exposed to expository method enriched with improvised and standard materials after being taught Basic Science Concept using the expository method enriched with improvised and standard materials. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the expository method enriched with improvised or standard materials should be used by Basic Science Teachers to teach Basic Science Students in large class at the upper basic education level. Therefore, instructional materials that teachers use in teaching Basic Science have significant effects on students performance and the use of either improvised instructional materials in the absence of standard or convential materials can facilitate learning in large class of Basic Science.
Science is the bedrock upon which the bulk of present day technological breakthrough is built. Today, nation all over the world, including Nigeria, are striving hard to develop scientifically and technologically, since the world is becoming scientific and all proper functioning of lives depends greatly on science. Science education is an important tool for national growth and development. The economic and political strength of a nation is always assessed in terms of her achievement in science and technology (Olarinoye 2001& Otuka 2006 )
Basic Science, formerly known as Integrated Science, is a subject taught in Lower, middle and upper Basic Education levels i.e. primary and junior secondary schools. It has occupied a very important position in the school curriculum and is made a core subject .In fact, there is so much emphasis on science, and science related subjects at all levels of education emphasizing the need for scientific thinking and application among the students, in which Basic Science is the foundation. Science education plays a vital role in the lives of individuals and the development of a nation scientifically and technologically (Alebiosu and Ifanuyiwa, 2008). It is widely and generally acknowledged that the gateway to survival of a nation is through science education. It has been a prerequisite subject for offering most science oriented courses in the senior secondary schools and tertiary institutions and this calls for the need in teaching it effectively. In order to make our citizens show interest in science education, Nigerian government came up with a policy that 60% of the students seeking admission into the nations universities, polytechnics and colleges of education should be admitted for science oriented courses, while 40% of the students should be considered for arts and social science courses (Ajibola 2008).
Integrated Science has reflected a new world-wide dimension to the teaching into Nigeria through the Aiyetoro Basic Science Scheme in 1968 and the Nigeria integrated science project of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN). The first publication of the Nigerian Integrated Science Project (NISP) was in 1970.The Nigerian integrated science project has been concerned with improving science at the junior secondary level in the country .It presents science as the process of interpretation, manipulation and control of pupils environment. Now called Basic Science, the subject is now taught in primary and junior secondary schools (JSS) in Nigeria following the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) launched in 1999 due to the change in educational system i.e. from 6-3-3-4 to 9-3-4 system. The Nigeria Integrated Science project books have been revised and now cover the three years of junior secondary school (Duyilemi, 1991). Basic Science is one of the core subjects at the junior secondary school in the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme. According to FRN (2013), the basic education which shall be 9 years duration comprising of six years of primary and three years of junior secondary education shall be free and compulsory.
Based on the National Policy on Education (FRN 2013), the teaching of Basic science from the pre- secondary (lower basic) to the junior secondary school (upper basic) levels is intended to achieve the following aims and objectives which are: To Inculcate in the learners the spirit of inquiry and creativity through exploration of nature and local environment by observation; Laying sound basic foundation for scientific innovation and reflective thinking; To develop in the child the ability to adapt to the child changing environment through Basic Science process skills; including observation, manipulating, classifying, communicating, inferring, hypotheses, interpreting data and formulating models; Functional knowledge of science concept and principles to Explain simple and natural phenomena and to provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades
and craft of the locality. Develop self confidence and self –reliance through problems solving activities in science. From the above guiding principles, Basic Science course is to be taught beginning with the understanding of the meaning of science and how the scientists work, since it is an activity- oriented programme
Basic Science has been offered to enhance laboratory activity, provide concrete experience, stimulate interactions in school and increase scientific literacy. It also understands the process and product of science, maintaining the changes and showing relationship of science to society. It serves as a base for further scientific study in higher levels of education and consequently transformation of Nigerian society through science and technology. Despite the important position of Basic Science in the educational system and the efforts made by researchers to enhance students performances in Basic Science and sciences in general the performance is still low Adesoji (2008),”Science instruction, especially in Nigeria, has had a limited success in terms of students performance” ( Mohammed 2008).Also, the Federal Government of Nigeria has made several efforts at producing, improving and consolidating Basic Science Education in Nigeria (FRN 2013). One of such major effort is the development of Basic Science core curriculum (Osuji 2009). This development is very necessary since earlier training in science will, to a large extent determine student’s performance in science at subsequent level of education. Achimugu (2005) posits that, student comprehend and remember better when teaching materials are employed in teaching –learning process. The use of instructional materials if carefully and properly planned enhances teaching and learning of Basic Science. The effect of this is that they make the learning of science enjoyable, interesting, exciting and to see that a firm scientific base is developed in the students.
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